Brief Summary


Apatosaurus was a Sauropod-type dinosaur. This dinosaur was originally known as Brontosaurus. A scientist, when reconstructing, put a head of a Diplodocus, another Sauropod, and the body of an Apatosaurus together. They then named the dinosaur Apatosaurus, which means "deceptive reptile."

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Apatosaurus (pronounced /əˌpætɵˈsɔrəs/), also known by the popular but scientifically obsolete synonym Brontosaurus, is a genus of sauropod dinosaur that lived about 150 million years ago, during the Jurassic Period (Kimmeridgian and Tithonian ages). It was one of the largest land animals that ever existed, with an average length of 23 m (75 ft) and a mass of at least 23 metric tons (25 short tons). The composite term Apatosaurus comes from the Greek names apate (ἀπάτη)/apatelos (ἀπατηλός) meaning "deception"/"deceptive" and sauros (σαῦρος) meaning "lizard"; thus, "deceptive lizard". Othniel Charles Marsh gave it this name because he regarded the chevron bones as similar to those of some mosasaurs, members of a group of prehistoric marine lizards.

The cervical vertebrae were less elongated and more heavily constructed than those of Diplodocus and the bones of the leg were much stockier (despite being longer), implying a more robust animal. The tail was held above the ground during normal locomotion. Like most sauropods, Apatosaurus had only a single large claw on each forelimb, with the first three toes on the hind limb possessing claws.

Fossils of this animal have been found in Nine Mile Quarry and Bone Cabin Quarry in Wyoming and at sites in Colorado, Oklahoma and Utah, present in stratigraphic zones 2-6.[1]



Comparison of three species and a human: A. louisae (red), A. excelsus (violet), and A. ajax (green)

Apatosaurus was a tremendously large long-necked quadrupedal animal with a long whip-like tail. Its forelimbs were slightly shorter than its hindlimbs. One measurement places the total length of species Apatosaurus louisae at 22 m (72 ft).[2]

It was roughly the weight of four elephants.[3] One specimen of A. excelsus was estimated to weigh 25,952 kg (57,210 lb);[4] estimates for A. louisae were 20,600 kg (45,000 lb)[2] and 22,407 kg (49,400 lb).[5] Other estimates of the body mass of adult Apatosaurus species range from 18,000 kg (40,000 lb)[6] to 35,000 kg (77,000 lb).[5] A microscopic study of Apatosaurus bones concluded that the animals grew rapidly when young and reached near-adult sizes in about 10 years.[7]

The skull was small in comparison with the size of the animal. The jaws were lined with spatulate teeth, which resembled chisels, suited to an herbivorous diet. Like other sauropods, the vertebrae of the neck were deeply bifurcated; that is, they carried paired spines, creating a wide and deep profile for the neck.[8] The apparently massive neck was, however, filled with an extensive system of weight-saving air sacs. Apatosaurus, like its close relative Supersaurus, is notable for the incredibly tall spines on its vertebrae, which make up more than half the height of the individual bones. Also unusual among diplodocids is the shape of the tail, which is comparatively thin in breadth and short in height, a profile caused by the vertebral spines decreasing in height rapidly the farther they are from the hips. Apatosaurus also had very long ribs compared to most other diplodocids, giving it an unusually deep chest. The limb bones were also very robust.[9]

Classification and species

1896 diagram of the A. excelsus (then Brontosaurus) skeleton by O.C. Marsh. The head is based on material now assigned to Brachiosaurus sp.[10]

Apatosaurus is a member of the family Diplodocidae, a clade of gigantic sauropod dinosaurs. The family includes some of the longest creatures ever to walk the earth, including Diplodocus, Supersaurus, Suuwassea, and Barosaurus. Within the subfamily Apatosaurinae, Apatosaurus may be most closely related to Suuwassea, Supersaurus and Eobrontosaurus.[9][11][12]

In 1877, Othniel Charles Marsh published the name of the type species Apatosaurus ajax. He followed this in 1879 with a description of another, more complete specimen, which he thought represented a new genus and named Brontosaurus excelsus. In 1903, Elmer Riggs pointed out that Brontosaurus excelsus was in fact so similar to Apatosaurus ajax that it belonged in the same genus, which Riggs re-classified as Apatosaurus excelsus. According to the rules of the ICZN (which governs the scientific names of animals), the name Apatosaurus, having been published first, had priority as the official name; Brontosaurus was a junior synonym and therefore discarded from formal use.










Cladogram of the Diplodocidae after Lovelace, Hartman, and Wahl, 2008.[9]

Apatosaurus ajax is the type species of the genus, and was named by the paleontologist Othniel Charles Marsh in 1877 after Ajax, the hero from Greek mythology. It is the holotype for the genus and two partial skeletons have been found, including part of a skull. Apatosaurus excelsus (originally Brontosaurus) was named by Marsh in 1879. It is known from six partial skeletons, including part of a skull, which have been found in the United States, in Colorado, Oklahoma, Utah, and Wyoming. Apatosaurus louisae was named by William Holland in 1915 in honor of Mrs. Louise Carnegie, wife of Andrew Carnegie who funded field research to find complete dinosaur skeletons in the American West. Apatosaurus louisae is known from one partial skeleton which was found in Utah in the United States. Apatosaurus parvus was originally known as Elosaurus parvus, but was reclassified as a species of Apatosaurus in 1994.[13] This synonymy was upheld in 2004.[14]

Apatosaurus yahnahpin was named by Filla and Redman in 1994. Robert T. Bakker made A. yahnahpin the type species of a new genus, Eobrontosaurus in 1998,[15] so it is now properly Eobrontosaurus yahnahpin. One partial skeleton has been found in Wyoming. It has been argued that Eobrontosaurus belongs within Camarasaurus,[16] although this has been questioned.[3][17]


Original (outdated) A. excelsus skeletal mount at the AMNH

Othniel Charles Marsh, a Professor of Paleontology at Yale University, described and named an incomplete (and juvenile) skeleton of Apatosaurus ajax in 1877. Two years later, Marsh announced the discovery of a larger and more complete specimen at Como Bluff Wyoming — which, because of discrepancies including the size difference, Marsh incorrectly identified as belonging to an entirely new genus and species. He dubbed the new species Brontosaurus excelsus, meaning "thunder lizard", from the Greek brontē/βροντη meaning 'thunder' and sauros/σαυρος meaning 'lizard', and from the Latin excelsus, "highest, sublime", referring to the greater number of sacral vertebrae than in any other genus of sauropod known at the time.

Current A. excelsus skeletal mount at the American Museum of Natural History

The finds — the largest dinosaur ever discovered at the time and nearly complete, lacking only a head, feet, and portions of the tail — were then prepared for what was to be the first ever mounted display of a sauropod skeleton, at Yale's Peabody Museum of Natural History in 1905. The missing bones were created using known pieces from close relatives of Brontosaurus. Sauropod feet that were discovered at the same quarry were added, as well as a tail fashioned to appear as Marsh believed it should, as well as a composite model of what he felt the skull of this massive creature might look like. This was not a delicate Diplodocus-style skull (which would later turn out to be more accurate[18]), but was composed of "the biggest, thickest, strongest skull bones, lower jaws and tooth crowns from three different quarries",[19] primarily those of Camarasaurus, the only other sauropod for which good skull material was known at the time. This method of reconstructing incomplete skeletons based on the more complete remains of related dinosaurs continues in museum mounts and life restorations to this day.

Despite the much-publicized debut of the mounted skeleton, which cemented the name Brontosaurus in the public consciousness, Elmer Riggs had published a paper in the 1903 edition of Geological Series of the Field Columbian Museum which argued that Brontosaurus was not different enough from Apatosaurus to warrant its own genus, and created the combination Apatosaurus excelsus: "In view of these facts the two genera may be regarded as synonymous. As the term 'Apatosaurus' has priority, 'Brontosaurus' will be regarded as a synonym."

Despite this, at least one paleontologist—Robert Bakker—argued in the 1990s that A. ajax and A. excelsus are in fact sufficiently distinct that the latter continues to merit a separate genus.[20] This idea has not been accepted by many palaeontologists.[16][21]


Early on, it was believed that Apatosaurus was too massive to support its own weight on dry land, so it was theorized that the sauropod must have lived partly submerged in water, perhaps in a swamp. Recent findings do not support this. In fact, like its relative Diplodocus, Apatosaurus was a grazing animal with a very long neck and a long tail that served as a counterweight. One study suggested that diplodocid necks were less flexible than previously believed, and that sauropods like Apatosaurus were adapted to low browsing or ground feeding.[22]

In 2008, footprints of juvenile Apatosaurus were reported from Quarry Five in Morrison, Colorado. Discovered in 2006 by Matthew Mossbrucker, these footprints show that juveniles could run on their hind legs in a manner similar to that of the modern basilisk lizard.[23]


In the early 20th century, diplodocids like Apatosaurus were often portrayed with their necks held high up in the air, allowing them to graze from tall trees. More recently, scientists have argued that the heart would have had trouble sustaining sufficient blood pressure to oxygenate the brain. Furthermore, more recent studies have shown that the structure of the neck vertebrae would not have permitted the neck to bend far upwards.[24][25] However, subsequent studies demonstrated that all tetrapods appear to hold their necks at the maximum possible vertical extension when in a normal, alert posture, and argued that the same would hold true for sauropods barring any unknown, unique characteristics that set the soft tissue anatomy of their necks apart from other animals. Apatosaurus, like Diplodocus, would have held its neck angled upward with the head pointed downwards in a resting posture.[26]


Femur on display in Cosmocaixa, Barcelona

Given the large body mass of Apatosaurus, combined with its long neck, physiologists have encountered problems determining how these animals managed to breathe.

Beginning with the assumption that Apatosaurus, like crocodilians, did not have a diaphragm, the dead-space volume (the amount of unused air remaining in the mouth, trachea and air tubes after each breath) has been estimated at about 184 liters for a 30 ton specimen.

Its tidal volume (the amount of air moved in or out during a single breath) has been calculated based on the following respiratory systems:

  • 904 liters if avian
  • 225 liters if mammalian
  • 19 liters if reptilian.

On this basis, its respiratory system could not have been reptilian, as its tidal volume would not have been able to replace its dead-space volume. Likewise, the mammalian system would only provide a fraction of new air on each breath. Therefore, it must have had either a system unknown in the modern world or one like birds, i.e. multiple air sacs and a flow-through lung. Furthermore, an avian system would only need a lung volume of about 600 liters compared to a mammalian requirement of 2,950 liters, which would exceed the available space. The overall thoracic volume of Apatosaurus has been estimated at 1,700 liters allowing for a 500-liter, four-chambered heart (like birds, not three-chambered like reptiles) and a 900-liter lung capacity. That would allow about 300 liters for the necessary tissue. Assuming Apatosaurus had an avian respiratory system and a reptilian resting-metabolism, it would need to consume only about 262 liters (69 gallons) of water per day.[27]


An article that appeared in the November 1997 issue of Discover Magazine reported research into the mechanics of Apatosaurus tails by Nathan Myhrvold, a computer scientist from Microsoft. Myhrvold carried out a computer simulation of the tail, which in diplodocids like Apatosaurus was a very long, tapering structure resembling a bullwhip. This computer modeling suggested that sauropods were capable of producing a whip-like cracking sound of over 200 decibels,[dubious ] comparable to the volume of a cannon.[28]

In popular culture

Illustration from the early 20th century by Charles R. Knight

The length of time taken for Marsh's misclassification to be brought to public notice meant that the name Brontosaurus, associated as it was with one of the largest dinosaurs, became so famous that it persisted long after the name had officially been abandoned in scientific use.[29]

As late as 1989, the U.S. Post Office issued four "dinosaur" stamps, Tyrannosaurus, Stegosaurus, "Pteradon" (misspelling of Pteranodon, which is a pterosaur and not a dinosaur) and Brontosaurus. The inclusion of these last two led to complaints of "fostering scientific illiteracy."[30] The Post Office defended itself (in Postal Bulletin 21744) by saying, "Although now recognized by the scientific community as Apatosaurus, the name 'Brontosaurus' was used for the stamp because it is more familiar to the general population." Stephen Jay Gould supported this position in his essay "Bully for Brontosaurus", though he echoed Riggs' original argument that Brontosaurus is a synonym for Apatosaurus. Nevertheless, he noted that the former has developed and continues to maintain an independent existence in the popular imagination.[29]

Brontosaurus has often been depicted in cinema, beginning with Winsor McKay's 1914 classic Gertie the Dinosaur. The 1925 silent film The Lost World featured, using special effects by Willis O'Brien, a battle between a Brontosaurus and an Allosaurus[citation needed] but the former inaccurately had a very bendy neck. When George Lucas made his special edition of Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope in 1997, he added some large, long-necked animals based on the Brachiosaurus digital model from the earlier film Jurassic Park. At an early stage he altered the CG department's suggested name 'Bronto,' taken from Brontosaurus, to 'Ronto'.[31]

Sinclair Oil has a long history of being a fixture on American roads (and briefly in other countries) with its green dinosaur logo and mascot, an Apatosaurus (Brontosaurus). While Sinclair's early advertising included a number of different dinosaurs, eventually only Apatosaurus was used as the official logo, due to its popular appeal.[32]

See also


  1. ^ Foster, J. (2007). "Appendix." Jurassic West: The Dinosaurs of the Morrison Formation and Their World. Indiana University Press. pp. 327-329.
  2. ^ a b Mazzetta, G.V., Christiansen, P., and Farina, R.A. (2004). "Giants and bizarres: body size of some southern South American Cretaceous dinosaurs." Historical Biology, 2004: 1-13.
  3. ^ a b Holtz, Thomas R. Jr. (2008) Dinosaurs: The Most Complete, Up-to-Date Encyclopedia for Dinosaur Lovers of All Ages Supplementary Information
  4. ^ Erickson, Gregory M.; Curry Rogers, Kristina; Yerby, Scott A. (2001). "Dinosaurian growth patterns and rapid avian growth rates.". Nature 412 (6845): 429–33. doi:10.1038/35086558. PMID 11473315. 
  5. ^ a b Seebacher, Frank (2001). "A new method to calculate allometric length-mass relationships of dinosaurs". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 21: 51–52. doi:10.1671/0272-4634(2001)021[0051:ANMTCA]2.0.CO;2. 
  6. ^ Packard, G.C.; Boardman, T.J.; Birchard, G.F. (2009). "Allometric equations for predicting body mass of dinosaurs". Journal of Zoology 279: 102–110. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.2009.00594.x. 
  7. ^ Curry, Kristina A. (1999). "Ontogenetic histology of Apatosaurus (Dinosauria: Sauropoda): new insights on growth rates and longevity". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 19 (4): 654–665. doi:10.1080/02724634.1999.10011179. http://www.jstor.org/stable/4524036. 
  8. ^ Fasovsky, D.E. and Weishampel, D.B. (2009). Dinosaurs: A Concise Natural History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-88996-4
  9. ^ a b c Lovelace, David M.; Hartman, Scott A.; and Wahl, William R. (2007). "Morphology of a specimen of Supersaurus (Dinosauria, Sauropoda) from the Morrison Formation of Wyoming, and a re-evaluation of diplodocid phylogeny". Arquivos do Museu Nacional 65 (4): 527–544. http://server1.bhbfonline.org/Specimens/CLPV_II_Supersaurus.pdf. 
  10. ^ Carpenter, Kenneth; Tidwell, Virginia (1998). "Preliminary Description of a Brachiosaurus Skull from Felch Quarry 1, Garden Park, Colorado". In Carpenter, Kenneth; Chure, Dan; Kirkland, James Ian. The Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation: an interdisciplinary study. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9056991833. http://books.google.com/?id=CLEPeg_SjTcC&pg=PA69. 
  11. ^ Taylor, M.P. and Naish, D. (2005). "The phylogenetic taxonomy of Diplodocoidea (Dinosauria: Sauropoda)". PaleoBios 25 (2): 1–7. http://www.miketaylor.org.uk/dino/pubs/. 
  12. ^ Harris, J.D. (2006). "The significance of Suuwassea emiliae (Dinosauria: Sauropoda) for flagellicaudatan intrarelationships and evolution". Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 4 (2): 185–198. doi:10.1017/S1477201906001805. 
  13. ^ Carpenter, K. and McIntosh, J. (1994). "Upper Jurassic sauropod babies from the Morrison Formation", In: K. Carpenter, K. F. Hirsch, and J. R. Horner (eds.), Dinosaur Eggs and Babies. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 265–278
  14. ^ Upchurch, Paul; Tomida, Yukimitsu; and Barrett, Paul M. (2004). "A new specimen of Apatosaurus ajax (Sauropoda: Diplodocidae) from the Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic) of Wyoming, USA." National Science Museum monographs 26: i-118 ISSN:13429574
  15. ^ Bakker, R.T. (1998). "Dinosaur mid-life crisis: the Jurassic-Cretaceous transition in Wyoming and Colorado". In: S.G. Lucas, J.I. Kirkland, & J.W. Estep (eds.) Lower and Middle Cretaceous Terrestrial Ecosystems; New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin, 14: 67–77.
  16. ^ a b Upchurch, P., Barrett, P.M. and Dodson, P. (2004). "Sauropoda". In Weishampel, D.B., Osmólska, H., and Dodson, P. (eds.), The Dinosauria (2nd edition). University of California Press, Berkeley 259–322.
  17. ^ Hartman, Scott (2005-02-13). ""Eobrontosaurus" is not Camarasaurus". The Dinosaur Mailing List Archives. http://dml.cmnh.org/2005Feb/msg00289.html. Retrieved 27 January 2010. 
  18. ^ McIntosh, J.S. and Berman, D.S. (1975). "Description of the palate and lower jaw of the sauropod dinosaur Diplodocus (Reptilia: Saurischia) with remarks on the nature of the skull of Apatosaurus". Journal of Paleontology 49 (1): 187–199. http://www.jstor.org/pss/1303324. 
  19. ^ Bakker, Robert (1994). "The Bite of the Bronto" Earth 3:(6):26–33.
  20. ^ Bakker, R.T. (1998). "Dinosaur mid-life crisis: the Jurassic-Cretaceous transition in Wyoming and Colorado". In: S.G. Lucas, J.I. Kirkland, & J.W. Estep (eds.) Lower and Middle Cretaceous Terrestrial Ecosystems; New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin, 14: 67–77.
  21. ^ McIntosh, J.S. (1995). "Remarks on the North American sauropod Apatosaurus Marsh". Sixth Symposium on Mesozoic Terrestrial Ecosystems and Biota, Short Papers, A. Sun and Y. Wang (eds.), China Ocean Press, Beijing 119–123
  22. ^ Stevens, Kent A.; Parrish, JM (1999). "Neck Posture and Feeding Habits of Two Jurassic Sauropod Dinosaurs". Science 284 (5415): 798–800. doi:10.1126/science.284.5415.798. PMID 10221910. http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/284/5415/798. Retrieved 2008-08-03. 
  23. ^ Rajewski, Genevieve (May 2008). "Where Dinosaurs Roamed". Smithsonian: 20–24. http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history-archaeology/phenom-dino-200805.html. Retrieved 2008-04-30. 
  24. ^ Stevens KA, Parrish JM (2005). "Neck Posture, Dentition and Feeding Strategies in Jurassic Sauropod Dinosaurs". In Carpenter, Kenneth and Tidswell, Virginia (ed.). Thunder Lizards: The Sauropodomorph Dinosaurs. Indiana University Press. pp. 212–232. ISBN 0-253-34542-1. OCLC 57202057 61128849 218768170 57202057 61128849. 
  25. ^ Upchurch, P, et al. (2000). "Neck Posture of Sauropod Dinosaurs" (PDF). Science 287, 547b (2000); DOI: 10.1126/science.287.5453.547b. http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/reprint/287/5453/547b.pdf. Retrieved 2008-08-05. 
  26. ^ Taylor, M.P.; Wedel, M.J.; Naish, D. (2009). "Head and neck posture in sauropod dinosaurs inferred from extant animals". Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 54 (2): 213–220. http://www.app.pan.pl/archive/published/app54/app54-213.pdf.  (Abstract)
  27. ^ Paladino, F.V., Spotila, J.R., and Dodson, P. (1997). "A Blueprint for Giants: Modeling the Physiology of Large Dinosaurs." In Farlow, J.O. and Brett-Surman, M.K. (eds.), The Complete Dinosaur, Indiana University Press, 491–504. doi0253333490.
  28. ^ Zimmer, C. (1997). "Dinosaurs in Motion." Discover, 1 November 1997. [1] Accessed 27 July 2008.
  29. ^ a b Gould, S.J. (1991). Bully for Brontosaurus: Reflections in Natural History, W. W. Norton & Co., 540pp.
  30. ^ " Topics of The Times; Leapin' Lizards!" The New York Times, 1989-10-11. Last accessed 2008-06-08.
  31. ^ "Ronto". Databank. Star Wars.com. http://www.starwars.com/databank/creature/ronto/index.html. Retrieved 2009-01-13. 
  32. ^ Sinclair Oil Corporation, (2008). Evolution of the Company Symbol. Published online by SinclairOil.com, http://www.sinclairoil.com/history/historys_p1.htm Accessed 27-August-2010.
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