Overview

Distribution

Global Range: (20,000-200,000 square km (about 8000-80,000 square miles)) Widely introduced to control giant African snails (Cowie, 1997; Cowie and Cook, 1999) in Hawaii but native to Florida and the Gulf region.

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endemic to a single nation

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat Type: Terrestrial

Comments: Typically found in leaf litter but recently found to climb trees to seek prey (other snails) (Davis et al., 2004).

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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: > 300

Comments: This species has been documented extensively in Florida (Davis et al., 2004). It was first introduced to the Hawaiian Islands from Florida in 1955 as a potential biological control agent against Achatina fulica (Cowie, 1997). Since then it was recorded from Kaua'i, O'ahu, Moloka'i, Maui, and Hawai'i (Cowie, 1997) and has been reconfirmed in all of these islands plus new records from Lana'i (Hayes et al., 2007).

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Euglandina rosea

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Reasons: Widely introduced to control giant African snails (Cowie, 1997; Cowie and Cook, 1999) in Hawaii but native to Florida and the Gulf region.

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Global Short Term Trend: Increase of 10 to >25%

Comments: It was first introduced to the Hawaiian Islands from Florida in 1955 as a potential biological control agent against Achatina fulica (Cowie, 1997). Since then it was recorded from Kaua'i, O'ahu, Moloka'i, Maui, and Hawai'i (Cowie, 1997) and has been reconfirmed in all of these islands plus new records from Lana'i (Hayes et al., 2007).

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Wikipedia

Euglandina rosea

Euglandina rosea, common names the "rosy wolfsnail" or the "cannibal snail", is a species of medium-sized to large predatory air-breathing land snail, a carnivorous terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusk in the family Spiraxidae.

Distribution[edit]

This species is native to tropical North America. It has become an invasive species in many other places, including Hawaii.

These predatory snails were originally introduced to Hawaii in an attempt to eliminate another invasive species, the giant African land snail, Achatina fulica. However, the introduced species also vigorously attacked the indigenous O'ahu tree snail. As a result many tree snail species were hunted to extinction within the first year. These predatory snails continue to represent a threat to the local snail fauna. Of all known mollusk extinctions since the year 1500, about 70% are from islands, and it has been estimated that one-third of these were caused by introduced Euglandina rosea.[1]

Description[edit]

The rosy wolfsnail has a light brown elongated shell and a light grey, or brown body. Its lower tentacles are long and almost touch the ground. The shell is often 40 to 50 mm in maximum dimension but can sometimes be as large as 60 or even 70 mm.[2]

Feeding habits[edit]

This species is a fast and voracious predator, hunting and eating other snails and slugs. The smaller species of prey are ingested whole. This gave it the nickname "the cannibal snail".

References[edit]

  1. ^ Claire Régnier, Benoît Fontaine & Philippe Bouchet (2009). "Not knowing, not recording, not listing: numerous unnoticed mollusk extinctions". Conservation Biology 23 (5): 1214–1221. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2009.01245.x. PMID 19459894. 
  2. ^ Kurt Auffenberg & Lionel A. Stange (November 2001). "Snail-eating snails of Florida, Gastropoda". University of Florida. EENY251. Retrieved October 7, 2012. 
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