The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Bouchet P., Gofas S. & Rosenberg G. (2015). WoRMS Mollusca: World Marine Mollusca database (version Feb 2013). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Dakin, William John. 1928a. The anatomy and phylogeny of Spondylus, with a particular reference to the lamellibranch nervous system. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Containing Papers of a Biological Character, 103, 725: 337-354.
  • Dakin, William John. 1928b. The Eyes of Pecten, Spondylus, Amussiumn and Allied Lamellibranchs, with a short Discussion on their Evolution. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Containing Papers of a Biological Character, 103, 725: 355-365.
  • Drew, Gilman Arthur. 1906. The Habits, Anatomy, and Embryology of the Giant Scallop, (Pecten tenuicostatus, Mighels). University of Maine, Studies 6: 3-71, pls. 1-17.
  • Fay, Clemon W., Richard J. Neves, and Garland B. Pardue. 1983. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Mid-Atlantic) - Bay Scallop. United States, Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Biological Report 82(11.12): 1-17.
  • Feifarek, Brian P. 1987. Spines and epibionts as antipredator defenses in the thorny oyster Spondylus americanus Hermann. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 105, 1: 39-56.
  • Harper, Elizabeth M. 1991. The Role of Predation in the Evolution of Cementation in Bivalves. Paleontology, 34, 2: 455-460.
  • Huber M. 2010. Compendium of bivalves. A full-color guide to 3,300 of the world’s marine bivalves. A status on Bivalvia after 250 years of research. Hackenheim: ConchBooks. 901
  • Koyama, Tomoyuki, Ritsu Chounan, Daisuke Uemura, Kohji Yamaguchi and Kazunaga Yazawa. 2006. Hepatoprotective Effect of a Hot-Water Extract from the Edible Thorny Oyster Spondylus varius on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver Injury in Mice. Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry, 70: 729-731.
  • Lamprell, Kevin. 1987. Spondylus: Spiny Oysters of the World. 82 pp, Leiden, The Netherlands: Bakchuys Publishers.
  • Logan, A. 1974. Morphology and Life Habits of the Recent Cementing Bivalve Spondylus Americanus Hermann from the Bermuda Platform. Bulletin of Marine Science, 24, 3: 568-594.
  • Mikkelsen, P.M.. 2003. Bivalvia, 451-456. In: Bernhard Grzimek (ed.) Grzimek’s Animal Life Encyclopaedia, Vol. 2: Protostomes, Farmington Hills, Michigan: Gale.
  • Peterson, Charles H. and Lubchenco, Jane. Marine Ecosystem Services, 177-194. In: Gretchen C. Daily, (ed.) Nature's services: Societal Dependence on Natural Ecosystems, Washington, DC: Island Press.
  • Rosenberg, G. 1992. Encyclopedia of Seashells. Dorset: New York. 224 pp.
  • Tunnell Jr, J. W.; Andrews, J.; Barrera, N. C. & Moretzsohn, F. 2010. Encyclopedia of Texas Seashells: Identification, Ecology, Distribution, and History. 512 pp, College Station, Texas: Texas A&M University Press.
  • Turgeon, D. D., A. E. Bogan, E. V. Coan, W. K. Emerson, W. G. Lyons, W. Pratt, et al. 1988. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: mollusks. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 16. vii + 277
  • Turgeon, D. D., J. F. Quinn, Jr., A. E. Bogan, E. V. Coan, F. G. Hochberg, W. G. Lyons, et al. 1998. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Mollusks, 2nd ed. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 26. 526
  • Turgeon, D. D., W. G. Lyons, P. Mikkelsen, G. Rosenberg, and F. Moretzsohn. 2009. Bivalvia (Mollusca) of the Gulf of Mexico,
  • Weisbord, Norman E. 1964. Late Cenozoic pelecypods from northern Venezuela. Bulletins of American paleontology, 45, 204: 1-564.
  • Wells, Susan M. 1988. Coral Reefs of the World. Volume 1: Atlantic and Eastern Pacific. 301 pp, Cambridge, The United Kingdom: The IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre.
  • Yonge, C. M.. 1973. Functional Morphology with Particular Reference to Hinge and Ligament in Spondylus and Plicatula and a Discussion on Relations within the Superfamily Pectinacea (Mollusca: Bivalvia). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 267, 883: 173-208.


EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!