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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Argopecten irradians concentricusis a member of the family Pectinidae. The bay scallop is difficult to distinguish from the queen scallop (Chlamys opercularis) and the calico scallop (Argopecten gibbus). For the bay scallop, the shell is right convex (the right valve is more rounded than the left) (Fay et al. 1983). The shell of A. irrradians concentricus is broadly fan shaped with more than 14 radial ribs (Fay et al. 1983, Mikkelsen and Bieler 2008). Shells are symmetric and vary considerably in color. They usually have a molted pattern incorporating dark grey, black, or brown with orange, red, or yellow hues (Fay et al. 1983).
  • Arnold WS, Marelli DC, Bray CP and MM Harrison. 1998. Recruitment of bay scallops Argopecten irradians in Floridian Gulf of Mexico waters: scales of coherence. Marine Ecology Progress Series 170:143-157.
  • Blake NJ. 2005. Aquaculture of the Florida Bay scallop, Argopecten irradians concentricus, in Tampa Bay, Florida, USA, an urban estuary. In: Urban Aquaculture. Eds: Costa-Pierce, B., Desbonnet, A., Edwards, P. and Baker, D. Oxford University Press 304 pages.
  • Barber BJ and NJ Blake. 1985a. Intra-organ biochemical transformations associated with oogenesis in the bay scallop, Argopecten irradians concentricus(Say), as indicated by 14C incorporation. Biological Bulletin 168:39-49.
  • Barber BJ and NJ Blake. 1985b. Substrate catabolism related to reproduction in the bay scallop Argopecten irradians concentricus, as determined by O/N and RQ physiological indexes. Marine Biology 87:13-18.
  • Burle E and WW Kirby-Smith. 1979. Growth of the bay scallop, Argopecten irradians, fed on an artificial diet rich in protein. Estuaries. 2:206-208.
  • Fay CW, RJ Neves, and GP Pardue. 1983. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Mid-Atlantic) - bay scallop. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Division of Biological Services, FWS/OBS-82/11.12. US Army Corp of Engineers, TR EL-82-4. 17pp.
  • Irlandi EA, Orlando BA, and WG Ambrose, Jr. 1999. Influence of seagrass habitat patch size on growth and survival of juvenile bay scallops, Argopecten irradians concentricus(Say). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 235:21-43.
  • ITIS. Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Available online.Kruczynski WL 1972. The effect of the pea crab, Pinnotheres maculatus Say, on growth of the bay scallop, Argopecten irradians concentricus(Say). Estuaries and Coasts 13:218-220.
  • Kruczynski WL 1973. Distribution and abundance of Pinnotheres maculatus Say in Bogue Sound, North Carolina. Biological Bulletin 145:482-291.
  • Mikkelsen, PM and R Bieler. 2008. Seashells of Southern Florida. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ. pg. 142.
  • Parker K. 2006. Bay scallops saltwater early-warning systems. Florida Wildlife May/June 2006. pg 54-55.
  • Summerson HC and CH Peterson. 1990. Recruitment failure of the bay scallop Argopecten irradians concentricus, during the first red tide,Ptychodiscus brevis, outbreak recorded in North Carolina. Estuaries 13:322-331.
  • Tettlebach ST and EW Rhodes. 1981. Combined effects of temperature and salinity on embryos and larvae of the northern bay scallop Argopecten irradians concentricus. Marine Biology 63:249-256.
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Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

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Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Argopecten irradians concentricusoccurs in seagrass beds in Atlantic coastal waters from New Jersey to Florida and in the Gulf of Mexico (Kruczynski 1972, Fay et al. 1983, Arnold et al. 1998, Irlandi et al. 1999).
  • Arnold WS, Marelli DC, Bray CP and MM Harrison. 1998. Recruitment of bay scallops Argopecten irradians in Floridian Gulf of Mexico waters: scales of coherence. Marine Ecology Progress Series 170:143-157.
  • Blake NJ. 2005. Aquaculture of the Florida Bay scallop, Argopecten irradians concentricus, in Tampa Bay, Florida, USA, an urban estuary. In: Urban Aquaculture. Eds: Costa-Pierce, B., Desbonnet, A., Edwards, P. and Baker, D. Oxford University Press 304 pages.
  • Barber BJ and NJ Blake. 1985a. Intra-organ biochemical transformations associated with oogenesis in the bay scallop, Argopecten irradians concentricus(Say), as indicated by 14C incorporation. Biological Bulletin 168:39-49.
  • Barber BJ and NJ Blake. 1985b. Substrate catabolism related to reproduction in the bay scallop Argopecten irradians concentricus, as determined by O/N and RQ physiological indexes. Marine Biology 87:13-18.
  • Burle E and WW Kirby-Smith. 1979. Growth of the bay scallop, Argopecten irradians, fed on an artificial diet rich in protein. Estuaries. 2:206-208.
  • Fay CW, RJ Neves, and GP Pardue. 1983. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Mid-Atlantic) - bay scallop. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Division of Biological Services, FWS/OBS-82/11.12. US Army Corp of Engineers, TR EL-82-4. 17pp.
  • Irlandi EA, Orlando BA, and WG Ambrose, Jr. 1999. Influence of seagrass habitat patch size on growth and survival of juvenile bay scallops, Argopecten irradians concentricus(Say). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 235:21-43.
  • ITIS. Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Available online.Kruczynski WL 1972. The effect of the pea crab, Pinnotheres maculatus Say, on growth of the bay scallop, Argopecten irradians concentricus(Say). Estuaries and Coasts 13:218-220.
  • Kruczynski WL 1973. Distribution and abundance of Pinnotheres maculatus Say in Bogue Sound, North Carolina. Biological Bulletin 145:482-291.
  • Mikkelsen, PM and R Bieler. 2008. Seashells of Southern Florida. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ. pg. 142.
  • Parker K. 2006. Bay scallops saltwater early-warning systems. Florida Wildlife May/June 2006. pg 54-55.
  • Summerson HC and CH Peterson. 1990. Recruitment failure of the bay scallop Argopecten irradians concentricus, during the first red tide,Ptychodiscus brevis, outbreak recorded in North Carolina. Estuaries 13:322-331.
  • Tettlebach ST and EW Rhodes. 1981. Combined effects of temperature and salinity on embryos and larvae of the northern bay scallop Argopecten irradians concentricus. Marine Biology 63:249-256.
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© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

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45°N to 40°N; 75°W to 70°W, Nova Scotia, Gulf of St. Lawrence and southward Gulf of St. Lawrence (unspecified region)
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Physical Description

Size

Adult bay scallops range in size from 55 to 90 mm (Fay et al. 1983). The average life span of Argopecten irradians concentricusis 12 - 18 months (Barber and Blake 1985a). The longest living individuals will live for 26 months (Fay et al. 1983). The larval mortality rate is somewhat high. It can range from 10%-50% within the first 8 days of settlement. High water temperatures in the summer months can lead to a shortened lifespan in adults (Blake 2005).
  • Arnold WS, Marelli DC, Bray CP and MM Harrison. 1998. Recruitment of bay scallops Argopecten irradians in Floridian Gulf of Mexico waters: scales of coherence. Marine Ecology Progress Series 170:143-157.
  • Blake NJ. 2005. Aquaculture of the Florida Bay scallop, Argopecten irradians concentricus, in Tampa Bay, Florida, USA, an urban estuary. In: Urban Aquaculture. Eds: Costa-Pierce, B., Desbonnet, A., Edwards, P. and Baker, D. Oxford University Press 304 pages.
  • Barber BJ and NJ Blake. 1985a. Intra-organ biochemical transformations associated with oogenesis in the bay scallop, Argopecten irradians concentricus(Say), as indicated by 14C incorporation. Biological Bulletin 168:39-49.
  • Barber BJ and NJ Blake. 1985b. Substrate catabolism related to reproduction in the bay scallop Argopecten irradians concentricus, as determined by O/N and RQ physiological indexes. Marine Biology 87:13-18.
  • Burle E and WW Kirby-Smith. 1979. Growth of the bay scallop, Argopecten irradians, fed on an artificial diet rich in protein. Estuaries. 2:206-208.
  • Fay CW, RJ Neves, and GP Pardue. 1983. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Mid-Atlantic) - bay scallop. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Division of Biological Services, FWS/OBS-82/11.12. US Army Corp of Engineers, TR EL-82-4. 17pp.
  • Irlandi EA, Orlando BA, and WG Ambrose, Jr. 1999. Influence of seagrass habitat patch size on growth and survival of juvenile bay scallops, Argopecten irradians concentricus(Say). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 235:21-43.
  • ITIS. Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Available online.Kruczynski WL 1972. The effect of the pea crab, Pinnotheres maculatus Say, on growth of the bay scallop, Argopecten irradians concentricus(Say). Estuaries and Coasts 13:218-220.
  • Kruczynski WL 1973. Distribution and abundance of Pinnotheres maculatus Say in Bogue Sound, North Carolina. Biological Bulletin 145:482-291.
  • Mikkelsen, PM and R Bieler. 2008. Seashells of Southern Florida. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ. pg. 142.
  • Parker K. 2006. Bay scallops saltwater early-warning systems. Florida Wildlife May/June 2006. pg 54-55.
  • Summerson HC and CH Peterson. 1990. Recruitment failure of the bay scallop Argopecten irradians concentricus, during the first red tide,Ptychodiscus brevis, outbreak recorded in North Carolina. Estuaries 13:322-331.
  • Tettlebach ST and EW Rhodes. 1981. Combined effects of temperature and salinity on embryos and larvae of the northern bay scallop Argopecten irradians concentricus. Marine Biology 63:249-256.
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© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat Type: Marine

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infralittoral and circalittoral of the Gulf and estuary
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Depth range based on 140 specimens in 5 taxa.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 23 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.45 - 671
  Temperature range (°C): 5.960 - 26.540
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.061 - 17.391
  Salinity (PPS): 32.282 - 36.252
  Oxygen (ml/l): 2.346 - 6.764
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.167 - 1.758
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.047 - 26.770

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.45 - 671

Temperature range (°C): 5.960 - 26.540

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.061 - 17.391

Salinity (PPS): 32.282 - 36.252

Oxygen (ml/l): 2.346 - 6.764

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.167 - 1.758

Silicate (umol/l): 1.047 - 26.770
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Trophic Strategy

The bay scallop is a filter feeder catching primarily phytoplankton in its gills (Burle and Kirby-Smith 1979, Fay et a1. 1983, Parker 2006).
  • Arnold WS, Marelli DC, Bray CP and MM Harrison. 1998. Recruitment of bay scallops Argopecten irradians in Floridian Gulf of Mexico waters: scales of coherence. Marine Ecology Progress Series 170:143-157.
  • Blake NJ. 2005. Aquaculture of the Florida Bay scallop, Argopecten irradians concentricus, in Tampa Bay, Florida, USA, an urban estuary. In: Urban Aquaculture. Eds: Costa-Pierce, B., Desbonnet, A., Edwards, P. and Baker, D. Oxford University Press 304 pages.
  • Barber BJ and NJ Blake. 1985a. Intra-organ biochemical transformations associated with oogenesis in the bay scallop, Argopecten irradians concentricus(Say), as indicated by 14C incorporation. Biological Bulletin 168:39-49.
  • Barber BJ and NJ Blake. 1985b. Substrate catabolism related to reproduction in the bay scallop Argopecten irradians concentricus, as determined by O/N and RQ physiological indexes. Marine Biology 87:13-18.
  • Burle E and WW Kirby-Smith. 1979. Growth of the bay scallop, Argopecten irradians, fed on an artificial diet rich in protein. Estuaries. 2:206-208.
  • Fay CW, RJ Neves, and GP Pardue. 1983. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Mid-Atlantic) - bay scallop. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Division of Biological Services, FWS/OBS-82/11.12. US Army Corp of Engineers, TR EL-82-4. 17pp.
  • Irlandi EA, Orlando BA, and WG Ambrose, Jr. 1999. Influence of seagrass habitat patch size on growth and survival of juvenile bay scallops, Argopecten irradians concentricus(Say). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 235:21-43.
  • ITIS. Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Available online.Kruczynski WL 1972. The effect of the pea crab, Pinnotheres maculatus Say, on growth of the bay scallop, Argopecten irradians concentricus(Say). Estuaries and Coasts 13:218-220.
  • Kruczynski WL 1973. Distribution and abundance of Pinnotheres maculatus Say in Bogue Sound, North Carolina. Biological Bulletin 145:482-291.
  • Mikkelsen, PM and R Bieler. 2008. Seashells of Southern Florida. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ. pg. 142.
  • Parker K. 2006. Bay scallops saltwater early-warning systems. Florida Wildlife May/June 2006. pg 54-55.
  • Summerson HC and CH Peterson. 1990. Recruitment failure of the bay scallop Argopecten irradians concentricus, during the first red tide,Ptychodiscus brevis, outbreak recorded in North Carolina. Estuaries 13:322-331.
  • Tettlebach ST and EW Rhodes. 1981. Combined effects of temperature and salinity on embryos and larvae of the northern bay scallop Argopecten irradians concentricus. Marine Biology 63:249-256.
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© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

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Associations

Argopecten irradians concentricusis the most common host for Pinnotheres (Tumidotheres) maculates (squatter pea crab) in Bogue Sound, North Carolina. This symbiosis causes a decrease in the growth of Argopecten irradians concentricus (Kruczynski 1972, 1973).Fishery: Bay scallops are fished primarily by small dredges dragged by power boats. In shallow waters, rakes and hand-gathering methods are used. In areas where fishing is allowed, the bay scallop season is usually from autumn to spring, outside of the reproductive periods. In 1981 the dollar value of the bay scallop fishery was $2,427,000 (Fay et al. 1983). In 1995 the Florida Marine Fisheries Commission eliminated all commercial fishing of the bay scallop within state waters and put a cap on recreational fishing in areas near the mouth of the Suwannee River. Aquaculture: Because of the decline of natural populations, commercial bay scallops are primarily reared in aquaculture facilities. In Tampa Bay, Florida, scallops are maintained in cages suspended in the water column until they are ready to spawn (Blake 2005). The mortality of the settled larvae is usually between 10-50%. Larvae are maintained on a diet of algae grown in sterilized seawater. Settled spat are maintained in re-circulating systems for 30-45 days and then transferred to mesh bags that are hung 1.0 m deep in the bay until maturity. Each year wild caught adults are introduced to aquaculture populations to maintain genetic diversity. Bay scallops are sold to wholesalers dealing in the specialty market for $0.25 - 0.30 each (Blake 2005).
  • Arnold WS, Marelli DC, Bray CP and MM Harrison. 1998. Recruitment of bay scallops Argopecten irradians in Floridian Gulf of Mexico waters: scales of coherence. Marine Ecology Progress Series 170:143-157.
  • Blake NJ. 2005. Aquaculture of the Florida Bay scallop, Argopecten irradians concentricus, in Tampa Bay, Florida, USA, an urban estuary. In: Urban Aquaculture. Eds: Costa-Pierce, B., Desbonnet, A., Edwards, P. and Baker, D. Oxford University Press 304 pages.
  • Barber BJ and NJ Blake. 1985a. Intra-organ biochemical transformations associated with oogenesis in the bay scallop, Argopecten irradians concentricus(Say), as indicated by 14C incorporation. Biological Bulletin 168:39-49.
  • Barber BJ and NJ Blake. 1985b. Substrate catabolism related to reproduction in the bay scallop Argopecten irradians concentricus, as determined by O/N and RQ physiological indexes. Marine Biology 87:13-18.
  • Burle E and WW Kirby-Smith. 1979. Growth of the bay scallop, Argopecten irradians, fed on an artificial diet rich in protein. Estuaries. 2:206-208.
  • Fay CW, RJ Neves, and GP Pardue. 1983. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Mid-Atlantic) - bay scallop. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Division of Biological Services, FWS/OBS-82/11.12. US Army Corp of Engineers, TR EL-82-4. 17pp.
  • Irlandi EA, Orlando BA, and WG Ambrose, Jr. 1999. Influence of seagrass habitat patch size on growth and survival of juvenile bay scallops, Argopecten irradians concentricus(Say). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 235:21-43.
  • ITIS. Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Available online.Kruczynski WL 1972. The effect of the pea crab, Pinnotheres maculatus Say, on growth of the bay scallop, Argopecten irradians concentricus(Say). Estuaries and Coasts 13:218-220.
  • Kruczynski WL 1973. Distribution and abundance of Pinnotheres maculatus Say in Bogue Sound, North Carolina. Biological Bulletin 145:482-291.
  • Mikkelsen, PM and R Bieler. 2008. Seashells of Southern Florida. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ. pg. 142.
  • Parker K. 2006. Bay scallops saltwater early-warning systems. Florida Wildlife May/June 2006. pg 54-55.
  • Summerson HC and CH Peterson. 1990. Recruitment failure of the bay scallop Argopecten irradians concentricus, during the first red tide,Ptychodiscus brevis, outbreak recorded in North Carolina. Estuaries 13:322-331.
  • Tettlebach ST and EW Rhodes. 1981. Combined effects of temperature and salinity on embryos and larvae of the northern bay scallop Argopecten irradians concentricus. Marine Biology 63:249-256.
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© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

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Known predators

  • Christian RR, Luczkovich JJ (1999) Organizing and understanding a winter’s seagrass foodweb network through effective trophic levels. Ecol Model 117:99–124
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Known prey organisms

Argopecten irradians (Suspension-feeding molluscs) preys on:
phytoplankton
bacterioplankton
Microprotozoa

Based on studies in:
USA: Florida (Estuarine)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • Christian RR, Luczkovich JJ (1999) Organizing and understanding a winter’s seagrass foodweb network through effective trophic levels. Ecol Model 117:99–124
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Population Biology

The Argopecten irradians concentricusfishery along the east coast of the United States has collapsed since the 1950s (Blake 2005). This species is very sensitive to natural (i.e. hurricanes, red tide events) as well as anthropogenic (i.e. overharvesting and habitat loss) processes (Summerson and Peterson 1990, Blake 2005). The decline in seagrass beds on the west coast of Florida may be a large contributing factor to the loss of bay scallop populations. Studies from several regions suggest that inadequate larval supply does not allow A. irradians concentricus to recover rapidly from depletion events (Arnold et al. 1998). In areas where the bay scallop does thrive, densities can be as high as 24.8 individuals per m2 (Fay et a1. 1983). Locomotion: Adult Argopecten irradians concentricus swim by "clapping" pulsed expulsions of water from the mantle cavity. Bay scallops exhibit a "zig-zag" swimming pattern by alternating water expulsions between the anterior and posterior gapes in the shell (Fay et a1. 1983).
  • Arnold WS, Marelli DC, Bray CP and MM Harrison. 1998. Recruitment of bay scallops Argopecten irradians in Floridian Gulf of Mexico waters: scales of coherence. Marine Ecology Progress Series 170:143-157.
  • Blake NJ. 2005. Aquaculture of the Florida Bay scallop, Argopecten irradians concentricus, in Tampa Bay, Florida, USA, an urban estuary. In: Urban Aquaculture. Eds: Costa-Pierce, B., Desbonnet, A., Edwards, P. and Baker, D. Oxford University Press 304 pages.
  • Barber BJ and NJ Blake. 1985a. Intra-organ biochemical transformations associated with oogenesis in the bay scallop, Argopecten irradians concentricus(Say), as indicated by 14C incorporation. Biological Bulletin 168:39-49.
  • Barber BJ and NJ Blake. 1985b. Substrate catabolism related to reproduction in the bay scallop Argopecten irradians concentricus, as determined by O/N and RQ physiological indexes. Marine Biology 87:13-18.
  • Burle E and WW Kirby-Smith. 1979. Growth of the bay scallop, Argopecten irradians, fed on an artificial diet rich in protein. Estuaries. 2:206-208.
  • Fay CW, RJ Neves, and GP Pardue. 1983. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Mid-Atlantic) - bay scallop. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Division of Biological Services, FWS/OBS-82/11.12. US Army Corp of Engineers, TR EL-82-4. 17pp.
  • Irlandi EA, Orlando BA, and WG Ambrose, Jr. 1999. Influence of seagrass habitat patch size on growth and survival of juvenile bay scallops, Argopecten irradians concentricus(Say). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 235:21-43.
  • ITIS. Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Available online.Kruczynski WL 1972. The effect of the pea crab, Pinnotheres maculatus Say, on growth of the bay scallop, Argopecten irradians concentricus(Say). Estuaries and Coasts 13:218-220.
  • Kruczynski WL 1973. Distribution and abundance of Pinnotheres maculatus Say in Bogue Sound, North Carolina. Biological Bulletin 145:482-291.
  • Mikkelsen, PM and R Bieler. 2008. Seashells of Southern Florida. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ. pg. 142.
  • Parker K. 2006. Bay scallops saltwater early-warning systems. Florida Wildlife May/June 2006. pg 54-55.
  • Summerson HC and CH Peterson. 1990. Recruitment failure of the bay scallop Argopecten irradians concentricus, during the first red tide,Ptychodiscus brevis, outbreak recorded in North Carolina. Estuaries 13:322-331.
  • Tettlebach ST and EW Rhodes. 1981. Combined effects of temperature and salinity on embryos and larvae of the northern bay scallop Argopecten irradians concentricus. Marine Biology 63:249-256.
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Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

The bay scallop is a functional hermaphrodite, having both male and female sex organs (Barber and Blake 1985b). It is protandrous, releasing male gametes before the female gametes, to avoid self-fertilization (Fay et a1. 1983). Spawning will not occur until seawater temperatures reach 20°C. Individuals of Argopecten irradians concentricushave one reproductive cycle during their lifetime. Oocyte development begins in August and spawning usually occurs by October (Barber and Blake 1985b).
  • Arnold WS, Marelli DC, Bray CP and MM Harrison. 1998. Recruitment of bay scallops Argopecten irradians in Floridian Gulf of Mexico waters: scales of coherence. Marine Ecology Progress Series 170:143-157.
  • Blake NJ. 2005. Aquaculture of the Florida Bay scallop, Argopecten irradians concentricus, in Tampa Bay, Florida, USA, an urban estuary. In: Urban Aquaculture. Eds: Costa-Pierce, B., Desbonnet, A., Edwards, P. and Baker, D. Oxford University Press 304 pages.
  • Barber BJ and NJ Blake. 1985a. Intra-organ biochemical transformations associated with oogenesis in the bay scallop, Argopecten irradians concentricus(Say), as indicated by 14C incorporation. Biological Bulletin 168:39-49.
  • Barber BJ and NJ Blake. 1985b. Substrate catabolism related to reproduction in the bay scallop Argopecten irradians concentricus, as determined by O/N and RQ physiological indexes. Marine Biology 87:13-18.
  • Burle E and WW Kirby-Smith. 1979. Growth of the bay scallop, Argopecten irradians, fed on an artificial diet rich in protein. Estuaries. 2:206-208.
  • Fay CW, RJ Neves, and GP Pardue. 1983. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Mid-Atlantic) - bay scallop. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Division of Biological Services, FWS/OBS-82/11.12. US Army Corp of Engineers, TR EL-82-4. 17pp.
  • Irlandi EA, Orlando BA, and WG Ambrose, Jr. 1999. Influence of seagrass habitat patch size on growth and survival of juvenile bay scallops, Argopecten irradians concentricus(Say). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 235:21-43.
  • ITIS. Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Available online.Kruczynski WL 1972. The effect of the pea crab, Pinnotheres maculatus Say, on growth of the bay scallop, Argopecten irradians concentricus(Say). Estuaries and Coasts 13:218-220.
  • Kruczynski WL 1973. Distribution and abundance of Pinnotheres maculatus Say in Bogue Sound, North Carolina. Biological Bulletin 145:482-291.
  • Mikkelsen, PM and R Bieler. 2008. Seashells of Southern Florida. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ. pg. 142.
  • Parker K. 2006. Bay scallops saltwater early-warning systems. Florida Wildlife May/June 2006. pg 54-55.
  • Summerson HC and CH Peterson. 1990. Recruitment failure of the bay scallop Argopecten irradians concentricus, during the first red tide,Ptychodiscus brevis, outbreak recorded in North Carolina. Estuaries 13:322-331.
  • Tettlebach ST and EW Rhodes. 1981. Combined effects of temperature and salinity on embryos and larvae of the northern bay scallop Argopecten irradians concentricus. Marine Biology 63:249-256.
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Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

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Growth

Argopecten irradians concentricushave planktotrophic veliger larvae that appear within 48 hours after fertilization. The pediveliger, with a hinged shell and a fully developed foot stage emerges at approximately 10 days. Settlement and metamorphosis occurs in less than 2 weeks (Fay et a1. 1983). Peak recruitment during the fall in the Suwannee River, Florida region in the mid-1990's was reported to be approximately 20 spat per day. This was similar to what has been previously reported for the North Carolina basins and Long Island, New York (Arnold et al. 1998). The growth of juvenile bay scallops is rapid during the spring months and slows down as water temperatures decrease in the fall (Irlandi et al. 1999).
  • Arnold WS, Marelli DC, Bray CP and MM Harrison. 1998. Recruitment of bay scallops Argopecten irradians in Floridian Gulf of Mexico waters: scales of coherence. Marine Ecology Progress Series 170:143-157.
  • Blake NJ. 2005. Aquaculture of the Florida Bay scallop, Argopecten irradians concentricus, in Tampa Bay, Florida, USA, an urban estuary. In: Urban Aquaculture. Eds: Costa-Pierce, B., Desbonnet, A., Edwards, P. and Baker, D. Oxford University Press 304 pages.
  • Barber BJ and NJ Blake. 1985a. Intra-organ biochemical transformations associated with oogenesis in the bay scallop, Argopecten irradians concentricus(Say), as indicated by 14C incorporation. Biological Bulletin 168:39-49.
  • Barber BJ and NJ Blake. 1985b. Substrate catabolism related to reproduction in the bay scallop Argopecten irradians concentricus, as determined by O/N and RQ physiological indexes. Marine Biology 87:13-18.
  • Burle E and WW Kirby-Smith. 1979. Growth of the bay scallop, Argopecten irradians, fed on an artificial diet rich in protein. Estuaries. 2:206-208.
  • Fay CW, RJ Neves, and GP Pardue. 1983. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Mid-Atlantic) - bay scallop. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Division of Biological Services, FWS/OBS-82/11.12. US Army Corp of Engineers, TR EL-82-4. 17pp.
  • Irlandi EA, Orlando BA, and WG Ambrose, Jr. 1999. Influence of seagrass habitat patch size on growth and survival of juvenile bay scallops, Argopecten irradians concentricus(Say). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 235:21-43.
  • ITIS. Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Available online.Kruczynski WL 1972. The effect of the pea crab, Pinnotheres maculatus Say, on growth of the bay scallop, Argopecten irradians concentricus(Say). Estuaries and Coasts 13:218-220.
  • Kruczynski WL 1973. Distribution and abundance of Pinnotheres maculatus Say in Bogue Sound, North Carolina. Biological Bulletin 145:482-291.
  • Mikkelsen, PM and R Bieler. 2008. Seashells of Southern Florida. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ. pg. 142.
  • Parker K. 2006. Bay scallops saltwater early-warning systems. Florida Wildlife May/June 2006. pg 54-55.
  • Summerson HC and CH Peterson. 1990. Recruitment failure of the bay scallop Argopecten irradians concentricus, during the first red tide,Ptychodiscus brevis, outbreak recorded in North Carolina. Estuaries 13:322-331.
  • Tettlebach ST and EW Rhodes. 1981. Combined effects of temperature and salinity on embryos and larvae of the northern bay scallop Argopecten irradians concentricus. Marine Biology 63:249-256.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Argopecten irradians

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 10 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

ATAGCTAATTCACATAAAGATGTTGGTACAATGTACTTAATGTTGGGAATGTGGTCTGGGTTCGGTGGGTTAAATCTT---AGTTGGATAATGCGGTTGGAGTTAAGGCGTCCGGGGATGTGGCTTCCTAGC---TCTGAGGTGTATAACGGAATTGTTACACTTCACGCTATTATAATAATTTTCTTTTTTGTAATGCCTGTTTTAATTGGTGGGTTTGGTAATTGGCTCTTGCCTATGATG---TTGGGTGCCATTGATATGAGGTTCCCGCGGCTGAATACTTTTAGTTTTTGGGTGCTGCCTCCTGCCCTTTACTTAGTGATTGTTTCTTGTTTTATTGATTATGGAAGGGGGACGGGGTGGACTATGTACCCTCCGTTATCTAGCACTCCTTATTCGGGGGGCATAAGAACAGATTTGATA---ATCTTGGGTCTTCATTTGGCGGGGATTAGGTCATCTGCCGCCTCAATTAACTATTTAGTTACTTTCTTAAATGTTCGAAGAAAGACATTTAAAGCTGAGTATTGCCCCCCTTTCGTTTGGGCGCTTTCTGTTACGAGGTTCTTACTGTTGGTTTCTCTTCCAGTTTTAGCTGGG---GGGCTAACTATGCTGATCATGGACCGTCATTTCAATTGTAGGTTTTTTGATCCTTCTGGAGGGGGTGATCCAGTTTTGTTTCAACACCTTTTTTGGTTCTTTGGCCATCCAGAGGTTTATGTTCTGATCTTGCCTGGGTTTGGGTTGGTTTCTCATGTGTTAGTTTTTTATACT---AAGAAGCTACGAGTTTTTGGTTCGGTGGCGATGATGTATGCTATAATTTCTATTGGTGTTTTAGGCTTTATTGTATGGGGGCACCATATGTACACTGTAGGACTAGATGTAGATACGCGATTCTACTTCACAGCGGTTACTATGTTGATTGCTGTGCCTACTGGGGTTAAAGTCTTCAGGTGGATC---GCCACTATTTACGGCTCT---CACTTGAGGTTTGAAGCTCCTGTGCTTTGGGTCTTGGGCTTTATTGTAAAGTTTACTATGGGGGGAATTACGGGGGTTATTCTGTCAAATGCGTGTCTTGATGTGGCTTTACACGACACCTATTATGTAGTAGCCCATTTCCATTATGTT---CTATCTATGGGGGCTGTTTTTACTATTTTTGCTGGGTATGTTCATTACTTCCCCTTGTTTACTGGAAACTGCCTTCACCGTTCTTGGGCGCGTGGTCATTTCTTTTTAACTTTTGTGGGGGTAAACCTAACTTTCTTTCCTCAGCATTTTCTGGGACTAGGAGGGATGCCACGT---CGTATTCCCGACTATCCTATTTTTTACTAC---TACTGGAATCAGTGGAGGACAATTGGTTGTGCTATGGTAATGGTTAGGGTATCTCTATTTATTTTCATGCAATGGGAAGCATTTTTTAGTGGTCGGCGTCCT---TTGTTGGTTGGCAATCGTCCAAGGTCT
-- end --

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Argopecten irradians

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 10
Specimens with Barcodes: 10
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Reasons: Common marine species (Abbott, 1968).

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Wikipedia

Argopecten irradians

Argopecten irradians, formerly classified as Aequipecten irradians, common names Atlantic bay scallop or bay scallop, is an edible species of saltwater clam, a scallop, a marine bivalve mollusk in the family Pectinidae, the scallops.

Bay scallop fishery[edit]

This species of scallop used to support a large fishery on the East Coast of the United States, but since the 1950s, the fishery of the wild scallops has decreased greatly. This decrease is apparently the result of several negative influences, one of which is a reduction in sea grasses (to which bay scallop spat attach) due to increased coastal development and concomitant nutrient runoff. Another possible factor is reduction of sharks from overfishing. A variety of sharks used to feed on rays, which are a main predator of bay scallops. With the shark population reduced, in some places almost eliminated, the rays have been free to feed on scallops to the point of greatly decreasing their numbers.

By contrast, the Atlantic sea scallop (Placopecten magellanicus) is at historically high levels of abundance, after recovery from overfishing.

Bay scallops are now raised in aquaculture in Florida.[1] They were introduced into China for the 1980s and are the basis of a vibrant aquaculture industry in that country.[2]

Subspecies[edit]

This species has five different subspecies: [3]

  • A. i. amplicostatus (Dall, 1898) [4]
  • A. i. concentricus (Say, 1822) [5]
  • A. i. irradians (Lamarck, 1819) [6]
  • A. i. sablensis (Clarke, 1965) - a fossil subspecies
  • A. i. taylorae Petuch, 1987 - the southern bay scallop [7]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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