The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Baker, F.C. 1928. The fresh water Mollusca of Wisconsin. Part II. Pelecypoda. Bulletin of the Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey, No. 70. 495 p.
  • Barnhart, M. C., W. R. Haag and W. N. Roston. 2008. Adaptations to host infection and larval parasitism in the Unionoida. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 27(2): 370-394.
  • Bogan A. (2015). FADA Bivalvia: World checklist of freshwater Bivalvia species (version Jan 2013). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Coker, R. E., A. F. Shira, H. W. Clark, and A. D. Howard. 1921. Natural history and propagation of fresh-water mussels. Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries 37: 75-181.
  • Convey, L. E., J. M. Hanson, and W. C. MacKay. 1989. Size-selective predation on Unionid clams by muskrats. Journal of Wildlife Management 53(3): 654-657.
  • Cummings, K. S. and C. A. Mayer. 1992. Field guide to freshwater mussels of the midwest. Illinois Natural History Survey Manual 5. 194 pp.
  • Cummings, K. and T. Watters. Mussel/Host Database. Molluscs Division of the Museum of Biological Diversity at the Ohio State University (2002). From
  • Haag, W. R. and M. L. Warren. 1999. Mantle display of freshwater mussels elicit attacks from fish. Freshwater Biology 42: 35-40.
  • Hoggarth, M. A. 1999. Descriptions of some of the glochidia of the Unionidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia). Malacologia 41(1): 1-118.
  • Hove, M. C. 2004. Recovery information needed to prevent extinction of the federally endangered winged mapleleaf: early life history of select upper Mississippi River mussel species. Final report to USFWS, Onalaska, WI. 27 pp.
  • McMahon, R. F. 1991. Mollusca: Bivalvia. Pages 315-399 in: Thorp, J. H. and A. P. Covich, editors. Ecology and classification of North American freshwater invertebrates. Academic Press, Inc. New York, New York. 911 pp.
  • Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. Lampsilis higginsii. (2011). Retrieved September 11, 2011, from
  • Parmalee, P. W. and A. E. Bogan. 1998. The freshwater mussels of Tennessee. The University of Tennessee Press. Knoxville, Tennessee. 328 pp.
  • Pennak, R. W. 1989. Fresh-water invertebrates of the United States. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, New York. 628 pp.
  • Surber, T. 1913. Notes on the natural hosts of fresh-water mussels. Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries 32: 101-116.
  • Turgeon, D. D., A. E. Bogan, E. V. Coan, W. K. Emerson, W. G. Lyons, W. Pratt, et al. 1988. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: mollusks. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 16. vii + 277
  • Turgeon, D. D., J. F. Quinn, Jr., A. E. Bogan, E. V. Coan, F. G. Hochberg, W. G. Lyons, et al. 1998. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Mollusks, 2nd ed. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 26. 526
  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2004. Higgins eye pearlymussel (Lampsilis higginsii) recovery plan: first revision. Ft. Snelling, Minnesota. 126 pp.
  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Higgins Eye Pearlymussel. (2011, May 9). Retrieved September 14, 2011, from
  • University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois Natural History Survey. Lampsilis higginsii . (1997, December 15). Retrieved September 10, 2011, from
  • Waller, D. L and L. E. Holland-Bartels. 1988. Fish hosts for glochidia of the endangered freshwater mussel Lampsilis higginsi Lea (Bivalvia: Unionidae). Malacological Review 21: 119-122.
  • Williams, J. D., M. L. Warren, K. S. Cummings, J. L. Harris, and R. J. Neves. 1993. Conservation status of freshwater mussels of the United States and Canada. Fisheries 18(9): 6-22.
  • Wilson, C. B. 1916. Copepod parasites of fresh-water fishes and their economic relations to mussel glochidia. Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries 34: 333-374.


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