The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • "ITIS Standard Report Page: Spirula Spirula" (On-line). Accessed October 13, 2005 at
  • Abbott, R.T. 1974. American Seashells. 2nd ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold: New York, NY (USA). 663 pp.
  • Ardovini, R.; Cossignani, T. 2004. West African seashells (including Azores, Madeira and Canary Is.) = Conchiglie dell'Africa Occidentale (incluse Azzorre, Madeira e Canarie). English-Italian edition. L'Informatore Piceno: Ancona, Italy. ISBN 88-86070-11-X. 319 pp.
  • Bouchet P., Gofas S. & Rosenberg G. (2015). WoRMS Mollusca: World Marine Mollusca database (version Feb 2013). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Branch, G.M. et al. 2002. Two Oceans. 5th impression. David Philip, Cate Town & Johannesburg.
  • Bruun, A. F. 1943. The biology of Spirula spirula (L.). Dana-Report No. 24. 49pp.
  • Clarke, M. R. 1969. Cephalopoda collected on the SOND cruise. J.Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K., 49: 961-976.
  • Clarke, M. R. 1970. Growth and development of Spirula spirula. Jour. Mar. Biol. Ass. U. K. 50: 53-64.
  • Cousteau, J., P. Diole. 1973. Octopus and Squid The Soft Intelligence. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Company, Inc..
  • Dautzenberg, Ph. 1923. Liste préliminaire des mollusques marins de Madagascar et description de deux espèces nouvelles. J. conchyliol. 68: 21-74
  • Dautzenberg, Ph. 1929. Contribution à l'étude de la faune de Madagascar: Mollusca marina testacea. Faune des colonies françaises, III(fasc. 4). Société d'Editions géographiques, maritimes et coloniales: Paris. 321-636, plates IV-VII pp.
  • Durr, J., J. Gonzales, V. Hernandez-Garcia. 2003. "Predators of Spirula spirula " (On-line). CephBase- Cephalopod (Octopus, Squid, Cuttlefish and Nautilus) Database. Accessed November 20, 2005 at
  • Finn, J.; Hayward, B.; Gofas, S. (2016). Spirula spirula. In: MolluscaBase (2016). Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at
  • Gofas, S.; Le Renard, J.; Bouchet, P. 2001. Mollusca, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, 50:
  • Hanlon, R., J. Messenger. 1996. Cephalopod Behaviour. Cambridge, UK: Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge.
  • Herring, P. J., M. R. Clarke, S. von Boletzky and K. P. Ryan. 1981. The light organs of Sepiola atlantica and Spirula spirula (Mollusca: Cephalpooda): bacterial and intrinsic systems in the order Sepioidea. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K., 61: 901-916.
  • ITIS database
  • Jereb, P.; Roper, C.F.E. (Eds)(2005). An annotated an illustrated catalogue of cephalopod species known to date. Volume 1: Chambered nautilusses and sepioids (Nautilidae, Sepiidae, Sepiolidae, Sepiadariidae, Idiosepiidae and Spirulidae). FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes 4(1). FAO, Rome. 262p., 9 colour plates.
  • Judkins, H. L., M. Vecchione, and C. F. E. Roper. 2009. Cephalopoda (Mollusca) of the Gulf of Mexico,
  • Licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. 2005. "Ram's Horn Squid- Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia" (On-line). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Accessed October 13, 2005 at
  • Linnaeus, C. (1758). Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentius Salvius: Holmiae. ii, 824 pp.
  • Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 824
  • Moynihan, M. 1985. Communication and Noncommunication by Cephalopods. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
  • Naef, A. 1922 -- Die Fossilen Tintenfische. Gustav Fischer, Jena. 322 pp.
  • Nesis, K. 1987. Cephalopods of the World. Neptune City, NJ: T.F.H. Publications, Inc..
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
  • Rosenberg, G. 1992. Encyclopedia of Seashells. Dorset: New York. 224 pp.
  • Schmidt, J. 1922. Live specimens of Spirula. Nature, 110, No. 2271.
  • Spencer, H.G., Marshall, B.A. & Willan, R.C. 2009. ecent Mollusca. Pp 196-219 in: Gordon, D.P. (Ed.), The New Zealand inventory of biodiversity. 1. Kingdom Animalia: Radiata, Lophotrochozoa, Deuterostomia. Canterbury University Press, Christchurch
  • Stocks, K. 2009. Seamounts Online: an online information system for seamount biology. Version 2009-1. World Wide Web electronic publication.
  • Sweeney, M. J. and C. F. E. Roper / N. A. Voss, M. Vecchione, R. B. Toll and M. J. Sweeney, eds. 1998. Classification, type localities and type repositories of recent Cephalopoda. Systematics and Biogeography of Cephalopods. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 586 (I-II). 561-599
  • Turgeon, D. D., A. E. Bogan, E. V. Coan, W. K. Emerson, W. G. Lyons, W. Pratt, et al. 1988. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: mollusks. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 16. vii + 277
  • Turk, S. The Cornwall Trust for Nature, LTD. "Spirula spirula in Cornish Waters" (On-line). Accessed October 13, 2005 at
  • Ward, P. 1987. The Natural History of Nautilus. Boston, MA: Allen & Unwin Inc..
  • Wells, M. 1962. Brain and Behaviour in Cephalopods. Standford, CA: Stanford University Press.
  • Young, R. 1996. "Spirula Spirula" (On-line). Tree of Life Web Spirula Spirula. Accessed October 27, 2005 at
  • Young, R. E., M. Vecchione and D. Donovan. 1998. The evolution of coleoid cephalopods and their present biodiversity and ecology. South African Jour. Mar. Sci., 20: 393-420.
  • van der Land, J. (ed). (2008). UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms (URMO).


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