Overview

Brief Summary

Biology

Type of larval development: not documented [inferred from prodissoconch morphology to be short planktonic, non-planktotrophic]
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Comprehensive Description

Description

 The shell is thick, robust, almost circular in shape and up to 6.5 cm. The anterior hinge line curves more abruptly downwards than posterior.  The shell is dull brown, yellow, or light purplish-red in colour. Shells can be either uniformly coloured or exhibit irregular concentric zigzags on a cream background. The periostracum is dark brown and remains as a broad band around the margins of the shell, and is course and velvety to the touch. The inside of the shell is usually brown within the pallial line. The inner surface of the shell has 6-12 teeth on either side of the beak.Analaysis of dredge material revelaed that Glycymeris glycymeris is an important habitat for the hemichordate Rhabdopleura compacta (Stebbing, 1970).
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Distribution

It is not known for sure if this species can be found at the Belgian coast.
  • Backeljau, T. (1986). Lijst van de recente mariene mollusken van België [List of the recent marine molluscs of Belgium]. Koninklijk Belgisch Instituut voor Natuurwetenschappen: Brussels, Belgium. 106 pp.
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Eastern Atlantic, from Norway to southern Morocco, also Canary Islands and Madeira. Gorringe seamount, moderately common in 96-180 m (deeper than along mainland coasts).
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Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Diagnosis

Shell large, up to 65 mm long, solid, equivalve, circular in shape and inflated, equilateral. Umbos situated on the vertical midline, very slightly prosogyrous, separated from the hinge line by a narrow triangular area covered by the ligament, which is dark brown. Sculpture of very fine comarginal cords and radial striae, giving a reticulated appearance under high magnification. Hinge wide and arched, taxodont, with no teeth under the umbo and between 6 and 12 teeth on each side. Exterior brown or yellowish, with irregular streaks of dark brown. Interior white, with a variable extension of brown patches. Periostracum more or less hairy, dark brown. Glycymeris pilosa is a Mediterranean form with a stronger and densely hairy periostracum, considered by some authors as a distinct species, but could be an ecophenotype on more muddy bottoms.
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Ecology

Habitat

Known from seamounts and knolls
  • Stocks, K. 2009. Seamounts Online: an online information system for seamount biology. Version 2009-1. World Wide Web electronic publication.
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Depth range based on 104 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 14 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 8 - 137
  Temperature range (°C): 8.058 - 17.258
  Nitrate (umol/L): 1.331 - 11.344
  Salinity (PPS): 34.792 - 36.285
  Oxygen (ml/l): 5.350 - 6.358
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.123 - 0.813
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.158 - 4.729

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 8 - 137

Temperature range (°C): 8.058 - 17.258

Nitrate (umol/L): 1.331 - 11.344

Salinity (PPS): 34.792 - 36.285

Oxygen (ml/l): 5.350 - 6.358

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.123 - 0.813

Silicate (umol/l): 1.158 - 4.729
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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 This species is a shallow burrower in fine shell gravels or sandy/muddy gravels and can be found offshore to approximately 100 m depth.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Glycymeris glycymeris

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Glycymeris glycymeris

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 4
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Wikipedia

Dog cockle

The dog cockle or European bittersweet, Glycymeris glycymeris, is a species of marine clam, a coastal bivalve mollusc of European waters.

Despite its common name, it is not closely related to the common cockle.

While the English common name "dog cockle" implies an inferior food that might only be suitable for animals, this shellfish is edible and enjoyed in many European countries,[1] although the flesh has a reputation for becoming tough if overcooked. Its name in French (amande de mer) and Spanish (almendra de mar) means "sea almond", due to its apparently sweet and almond-like flavour.[2]

Contents

Habitat

The dog cockle is a burrowing animal, living in shelly gravel on the ocean floor at depths up to 100 m (330 ft).

Shell description

The shell, which reaches 6.5 cm in length, is thick, and almost circular in outline. The anterior hinge line curves more steeply downwards than the posterior. The shell varies in colour, being brown, yellow or a light purplish-red in colour. It can be uniformly coloured, or it can show irregular, concentric zigzags on a cream background.

Two beachworn valves of Glycymeris glycymeris from Wales

The periostracum is dark brown and forms a broad band around the shell margin; it is velvety in texture. The inside of the shell is normally brown within the pallial line. The inner surface of the shell has six to 12 teeth on either side of the beak.

References

  1. ^ Wendy Sweetser, The Connoisseur's Guide to Fish & Seafood (Sterling, 2009), p. 137.
  2. ^ "Amande de mer: smooth-shelled shellfish, like a small clam, with a sweet, almost almond flavor." Patricia Wells' French/English Food Glossary, http://www.patriciawells.com/glossary/atoz/a.htm
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