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Overview

Brief Summary

Biology

The white-lipped banded snail is a gregarious species which is active during the day in damp, mild conditions and can be found resting attached to plants in sheltered locations at other times (1). The preferred food plants of this snail include nettles, ragwort and hogweed. The shells of this species can often be found around thrush anvils, stones that thrushes use to break open snail shells (1). Individuals can live for up to three years (1). These snails are hermaphrodites, meaning that one individual possesses both male and female reproductive organs. Although they are able to self-fertilise, most individuals mate with another snail (4). Breeding takes place from spring to autumn, and begins with pairing and courtship. Each snail pierces the skin of its partner with a calcareous 'love dart', a spiny projection which is covered in mucus; the function of this love dart is unclear. Mating then takes place, the snails separate, and the eggs are laid deep in the soil (2).
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Description

The white-lipped banded snail has a glossy, smooth shell, which is typically yellow in colour but may be pink, brown or red, with up to 5 variable spiral dark bands and an obvious white lip around the aperture. Occasionally a dark-lipped form of this species may arise, which makes identification more complicated. It is similar in appearance to the brown-lipped banded snail (Cepaea nemoralis), but it has a thinner shell, with more rounded whorls (2). The body of the snail is usually greenish-grey becoming yellow towards the rear (2).
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is widespread in Europe, and is locally abundant (Kerney, Cameron and Jungbluth 1983). In Ireland, it has a patchy distribution (Kerney 1999) and common only in some central and eastern counties (Byrne et al. 2009).
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Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) This central and western Eurasian species is also found along the North American seaboard from southern Labrador around the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the Maritimes south to Long Island, New York. There is some speculation as to whether this introduced North American range (possibly by Norse explorers) might actually represent native range as a number of pre-Columbian fossil deposits are known for the region.

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occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Range

This snail is common and widespread in Britain (1). Elsewhere it is found in Europe (2).
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
The species has a general preference for temperate forest. Kerney (1999) suggests that C. hortensis prefers shadier and moister places than C. nemoralis in Britain. Such a distinction is not clear in Ireland although, unlike C. nemoralis, it does not favour coastal dunes. While C. hortensis has a Boreal-continental range more typical of xeric cold-adapted species, C. nemoralis has a markedly western range (Suboceanic Southern-temperate) and seems better adapted to equable, wet climates (Byrne et al. 2009).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Habitat Type: Terrestrial

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This species occurs in a range of habitats, including waste ground, woodland, hedgerows and grassland (3), and is often found in dense vegetation. In Scotland, it inhabits sand dunes and cliffs (1).
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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Associations

Animal / parasite / endoparasite
larva of Sarcophaga haemorrhoa endoparasitises Cepaea hortensis

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Population Biology

Global Abundance

>1,000,000 individuals

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Cepaea hortensis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Neubert, E.

Reviewer/s
Cuttelod, A. & Bilz, M.

Contributor/s

Justification

This species is relatively widespread and there is no threat known to this species. It is therefore considered to be Least Concern (LC).

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Reasons: This central and western Eurasian species is also found along the North American seaboard from southern Labrador around the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the Maritimes south to Long Island, New York.

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Status

Common and widespread (1).
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Population

Population

The size and trend within the subpopulations are supposed to be stable.


Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats

There are no threats to this species known.

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Not currently threatened.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species is listed in Ireland as Least Concern (Byrne et al. 2009).
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Conservation

Conservation action has not been targeted at this common species.
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Wikipedia

White-lipped snail

The white-lipped snail (Cepaea hortensis) is a medium-sized species of air-breathing land snail, a terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusc. It is a close relative of the grove snail.

Shell description[edit]

The white-lipped snail is very slightly smaller than the grove snail, the shell being usually about 2.5 cm (1 in) in maximum dimension. Like the grove snail (brown-lipped snail), it has considerable variability in shell colour and banding, although the shell of the white-lipped snail is perhaps most commonly yellow, with or without brown banding. The principal distinguishing feature of this species is a white lip at the aperture of the shell in adult specimens, although very rarely the brown-lipped grove snail can have a white lip, and vice versa.[2]

Distribution[edit]

The native distribution of this species is Western Europe and Central Europe.[3] The range of the white-lipped snail extends closer to the Arctic in Northern Europe than the range of the grove snail. The white-lipped snail has been introduced to northeastern parts of the USA, but has not established itself as successfully as the grove snail.

Habitat[edit]

The two species share many of the same habitats, such as woods, dunes and grassland, but the white-lipped snail tolerates wetter and colder areas than the grove snail can.

Life cycle[edit]

This species of snail creates and uses love darts during mating.

The size of the egg is 2 mm.[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Müller, O. F. 1774. Vermivm terrestrium et fluviatilium, seu animalium infusoriorum, helminthicorum, et testaceorum, non marinorum, succincta historia. Volumen alterum. - pp. I-XXVI [= 1-36], 1-214, [1-10]. Havniae & Lipsiae. (Heineck & Faber).
  2. ^ Simon Whipps, July 2009; last updated July 2009. Life & Environment, University of the West of Scotland; BIODIVERSITY REFERENCE - Cepaea nemoralis and Cepaea hortensis
  3. ^ Kerney M.P. & Cameron R. A. D., 1979. “A field guide to the land snails of Britain and northwestern Europe’’, Collins, London. ISBN 0-00-219676-X
  4. ^ Heller J. 2001: Life History Strategies. in Barker G. M. (ed.): The biology of terrestrial molluscs. CABI Publishing, Oxon, UK, 2001, ISBN 0-85199-318-4. 1-146, cited page: 428.
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