Overview

Distribution

occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Global Range: (200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)) This species occurs from Sitka, Alaska, to Panama in the intertidal zone to 10 m (Coan et al., 2000).

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Physical Description

Type Information

Syntype for Ostrea conchaphila Carpenter, 1857
Catalog Number: USNM 715919
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Preparation: Dry
Locality: Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico, North Pacific Ocean
  • Syntype: Carpenter, P. P. 1857. Catalogue of the Collection of Mazatlan Shells in the British Musuem. 552 pp.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat Type: Marine

Comments: The conchaphila form is usually attached to living mollusks or the carapace of large crustaceans and is usually solitary while the lurida form is attached to dead shells or rocks and may form extensive reefs (Coan et al., 2000).

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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: > 300

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Global Abundance

>1,000,000 individuals

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Ostrea conchaphila

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There is 1 barcode sequence available from BOLD and GenBank.   Below is the sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen.  Other sequences that do not yet meet barcode criteria may also be available.

CTTAGGTCTTATTCGGTGAAGGCTATT---------------------------------------------------------------------------------TATCCTGGGTCTAAATTTCTAGAC---CCTGTATGCTATAACGCTGTGGTGACTATACATGCTTTAGTGATAATTTTCTTTTTTGTCATGCCGGTAATAATCGGCGGGTTTGGAAATTGATTAGTGCCTTTAATACTTCAAGTGCCTGATATACAGTTCCCTCGAATAAATGCCTTTAGATTTTGAGTTTTGCCGGTTTCTCTGTATTTTATGGTAGTATCTGCTTTTGTTGAAAATGGTGTTGGGACAGGTTGAACTGTTTACCCGCCGTTATCAACTTTCTCGTATCAT---GGAATGTGTATAGACTTAGCAATTTTAAGGCTTCATTTAGCTGGTATTAGGTCAATTTTTAGATCAATTAATTTTATGGTTACAATTACTAATATGCGTTCAGTAGAC------GGGCATTTATTAGCGTTATTTCCGTGATCAATTAAAGTAACATCATTTTTACTACTAACTACCTTACCTGTACTAGCT
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Ostrea conchaphila

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N3 - Vulnerable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Reasons: This is a common marine species occurring from Sitka, Alaska, to Panama in the intertidal zone to 10 m (Coan et al., 2000).

Intrinsic Vulnerability: Unknown

Environmental Specificity: Unknown

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Threats

Degree of Threat: Unknown

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Management

Global Protection: Unknown whether any occurrences are appropriately protected and managed

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Wikipedia

Ostrea conchaphila

Olympia oysters and shucking knife for scale

The Olympia oyster, Ostrea conchaphila, is the native oyster of the Pacific coast of North America from Alaska to Mexico. The name is derived from the important 19th-century oyster industry near Olympia, Washington, in Puget Sound.

Distribution[edit]

Distinct from Ostrea lurida, which exists north of Baja California, O. conchaphila lives in the Pacific Ocean south of Baja California.[2]

Use by Native Americans[edit]

Native American peoples consumed O. conchaphila everywhere it was found, with consumption in San Francisco Bay so intense, enormous middens of oyster shells were piled over thousands of years. One of the largest such mounds, the Emeryville Shellmound, near the mouth of Temescal Creek and the eastern end of the San Francisco – Oakland Bay Bridge, is now buried under the Bay Street shopping center.[3]

Decline and return in California[edit]

O. conchaphila nearly disappeared from San Francisco Bay following overharvest during the California Gold Rush (1848-50s) and massive silting from hydraulic mining in California's Sierra Nevada (1850s-1880s). California's most valuable fishery from the 1880s-1910s was based on imported Atlantic oysters, not the absent native. But in the 1990s, O. conchaphila once again appeared in San Francisco Bay near the Chevron Richmond Refinery in Richmond, California.

Restoration efforts[edit]

Species restoration projects for the Olympia oyster funded by the US Government are active in Puget Sound and San Francisco Bay.[4][5] An active restoration project is taking place in Liberty Bay, Washington.[6] This Puget Sound location is the home of an old and new Olympia oyster population. Intertidal areas with native oyster populations or evidence of past populations are strong candidates for re-introduction.[7] The re-establishment of the population is currently threatened by the invasive Japanese oyster drill Ocinabrina inorata. This species preys on the oysters by drilling a hole between the two valves and digesting the oyster's tissues. O. inorata is a threat to the oyster especially in areas with low populations of the mussel Mytilis.

The Nature Conservancy of Oregon also has an ongoing restoration project at Netarts Bay, Oregon.[8]

References[edit]

  1. ^ IUCN 2007. 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 28 September 2008.
  2. ^ You Say Conchaphila, I Say Lurida: Molecular Evidence for Restricting the Olympia Oyster (Ostrea lurida Carpenter 1864) to Temperate Western North America, Maria P. Polson, Journal of Shellfish Research 28(1):11-21. 2009, downloaded March 2, 2012.
  3. ^ Emeryville Shellmound, Sacred Sites International Foundation, March 1, 2004, retrieved 2010-09-11 
  4. ^ NOAA Awards $150,000 to Restore the Olympia Oyster in Puget Sound, NOAA, October 23, 2003, retrieved 2010-09-11 
  5. ^ Researchers working to restore population of Olympia oysters along California coast, San Jose Mercury News, August 1, 2010, retrieved 2010-09-11 
  6. ^ Recovery of the Olympia Oyster in Kitsap County, United States Department of Agriculture, Spring 2008, retrieved 2010-09-11 
  7. ^ "Reestablishing Olympia Oyster Populations in Puget Sound, Washington". Washington Sea Grant. 
  8. ^ Returning oysters to the bay, The Nature Conservancy, retrieved 2010-09-11 


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