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Global Range: (250-1000 square km (about 100-400 square miles)) The southern kidneyshell is endemic to the Escambia and Yellow river drainages in Alabama, and Choctawhatchee River drainage in Alabama and Florida (Williams and Butler, 1994; Butler, 1989). There are 7 known historical sites in the Escambia River drainage, 2 in the Yellow River drainage, and 14 in the Choctawhatchee River drainage, for a total of only 23 historical sites. The only recent Alabama record is from the West Fork of the Choctawhatchee River (Mirarchi et al., 2004) plus 6 new sites in the Pea River and 1 in the Choctawhatchee River in 2006-2007 (Gangloff and Hartfield, 2009). Blalock-Herod et al. (2005) noted very severe decline and found live individuals at only 1 historical site within the Choctawhatchee River drainage as well as at sites where the species was found in 1993 (finding none) and found no new sites.