Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Herbs. Leaves whorled below, alternate above, narrow, sessile, entire. Flowers in terminal spikes. Calyx deeply 5-lobed. Corolla 2-lipped: tube with a basal spur; upper lip 3-lobed with a prominent basal palate; lower lip 2-lobed. Stamens 4, didynamous. Ovary with many ovules in each loculus. Fruit a capsule, opening by 4-10 apical valves. Seeds winged.
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© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

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Ecology

Associations

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Brachypterolus linariae feeds on Linaria

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Brachypterolus pulicarius feeds on Linaria

Foodplant / open feeder
larva of Chrysolina intermedia grazes on live leaf of Linaria
Remarks: captive: in captivity, culture, or experimentally induced

Foodplant / open feeder
larva of Chrysolina sanguinolenta grazes on live leaf of Linaria
Remarks: captive: in captivity, culture, or experimentally induced

Foodplant / gall
larva of Diodaulus linariae causes gall of bud of Linaria

Foodplant / gall
larva of Gymnetron antirrhini causes gall of flower of Linaria

Foodplant / gall
larva of Gymnetron netum causes gall of stem (base) of Linaria

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records: 389
Specimens with Sequences: 422
Specimens with Barcodes: 195
Species: 124
Species With Barcodes: 124
Public Records: 132
Public Species: 4
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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Barcode data

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Wikipedia

Linaria

For the bird genus, see Passerina (as originally described by Bartram in 1791) or Carduelis (as invalidly established by Bechstein in 1802).

Linaria is a genus of 150 species of herbaceous annuals and perennials and the largest genus in the Antirrhineae tribe of the Plantaginaceae family.

Taxonomy[edit]

Linaria was traditionally placed in the figwort family Scrophulariaceae. Phylogenetic analysis has now placed it in the vastly expanded family Plantaginaceae.

Closely related genera include the Nuttallanthus (American toadflaxes, recently split from Linaria), Antirrhinum (snapdragons) and Cymbalaria (Ivy-leaved toadflaxes).

Species[edit]

Some of the more familiar Linaria include:

  • Common toadflax or butter-and-eggs (Linaria vulgaris), a European species which is widely introduced elsewhere and grows as a common weed in some areas.

Etymology[edit]

The members of this genus are known in English as toadflax, a name shared with several related genera. The scientific name Linaria means "resembling Linum" (flax), which the foliage of some species superficially resembles.

Distribution and habitat[edit]

The genus is native to temperate regions of Europe, northern Africa and Asia, with the highest species diversity in the Mediterranean region.

Ecology[edit]

Some Linaria are regarded as noxious weeds. They are likely toxic to livestock, but ruminants generally avoid them.[2]

Uses[edit]

Toadflaxes are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, including the Mouse Moth (Amphipyra tragopoginis) and the Common Buckeye (Junonia coenia). L. vulgaris has been used as a medicinal herb for the treatment of many illnesses and conditions, including cancer, hepatitis, hemorrhoids, scrofula, and scurvy. It has been used as an astringent, an emollient, and a laxative.[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Dalmatian Toadflax (Linaria dalmatica). National Invasive Species Information Center, United States National Agricultural Library.
  2. ^ Sing, S. E. and R. K. Peterson. (2011). Assessing environmental risks for established invasive weeds: Dalmatian (Linaria dalmatica) and yellow (L. vulgaris) toadflax in North America. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 8(7) 2828-53.
  3. ^ Duke, J. A. Ethnobotanical uses: Linaria vulgaris. Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases.

Bibliography[edit]

  • A Phylogeny of Toadflaxes (Linaria Mill.) Based on Nuclear Internal Transcribed Spacer Sequences: Systematic and Evolutionary Consequences. Mario Fernández-Mazuecos, José Luis Blanco-Pastor, and Pablo Vargas. International Journal of Plant Sciences, Vol. 174, No. 2 (February 2013), pp. 234-249 Published by: The University of Chicago Press

Article DOI: 10.1086/668790

  • Vargas P, JA Rosselló, R Oyama, J Güemes. 2004 Molecular evidence for naturalness of genera in the tribe Antirrhineae (Scrophulariaceae) and three independent evolutionary lineages from the New World and the Old. Plant Syst Evol 249:151–172.
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Source: Wikipedia

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