Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Herbs. Leaves whorled below, alternate above, narrow, sessile, entire. Flowers in terminal spikes. Calyx deeply 5-lobed. Corolla 2-lipped: tube with a basal spur; upper lip 3-lobed with a prominent basal palate; lower lip 2-lobed. Stamens 4, didynamous. Ovary with many ovules in each loculus. Fruit a capsule, opening by 4-10 apical valves. Seeds winged.
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© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

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Distribution

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Linaria Mill.:
Honduras (Mesoamerica)
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

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Ecology

Associations

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Brachypterolus linariae feeds on Linaria

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Brachypterolus pulicarius feeds on Linaria

Foodplant / open feeder
larva of Chrysolina intermedia grazes on live leaf of Linaria
Remarks: captive: in captivity, culture, or experimentally induced

Foodplant / open feeder
larva of Chrysolina sanguinolenta grazes on live leaf of Linaria
Remarks: captive: in captivity, culture, or experimentally induced

Foodplant / gall
larva of Diodaulus linariae causes gall of bud of Linaria

Foodplant / gall
larva of Gymnetron antirrhini causes gall of flower of Linaria

Foodplant / gall
larva of Gymnetron netum causes gall of stem (base) of Linaria

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
                                        
Specimen Records:178Public Records:132
Specimens with Sequences:157Public Species:4
Specimens with Barcodes:156Public BINs:0
Species:9         
Species With Barcodes:8         
          
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Barcode data

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Locations of barcode samples

Collection Sites: world map showing specimen collection locations for Linaria

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Wikipedia

Linaria

For the bird genus, see Passerina (as originally described by Bartram in 1791) or Carduelis (as invalidly established by Bechstein in 1802).

Linaria is a genus of about 100 species of herbaceous annuals and perennials that was traditionally placed in the figwort family Scrophulariaceae. Due to new genetic research, it has now been placed in the vastly expanded family Plantaginaceae. The genus is native to temperate regions of Europe, northern Africa and Asia, with the highest species diversity in the Mediterranean region.

The members of this genus are known in English as toadflax, a name shared with several related genera. The scientific name means "resembling Linum" (flax), which the foliage of some species superficially resembles.

Closely related genera include the Nuttallanthus (American toadflaxes, recently split from Linaria), Antirrhinum (snapdragons) and Cymbalaria (Ivy-leaved toadflaxes).

Species[edit]

Some of the more familiar Linaria include:

  • Common toadflax or butter-and-eggs (Linaria vulgaris), a European species which is widely introduced elsewhere and grows as a common weed in some areas.

Medicinal uses[edit]

L. vulgaris has been used as a medicinal herb for the treatment of many illnesses and conditions, including cancer, hepatitis, hemorrhoids, scrofula, and scurvy. It has been used as an astringent, an emollient, and a laxative.[2]

Ecology[edit]

Some Linaria are regarded as noxious weeds. They are likely toxic to livestock, but ruminants generally avoid them.[3]

Toadflaxes are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, including the Mouse Moth (Amphipyra tragopoginis) and the Common Buckeye (Junonia coenia).

References[edit]

  1. ^ Dalmatian Toadflax (Linaria dalmatica). National Invasive Species Information Center, United States National Agricultural Library.
  2. ^ Duke, J. A. Ethnobotanical uses: Linaria vulgaris. Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases.
  3. ^ Sing, S. E. and R. K. Peterson. (2011). Assessing environmental risks for established invasive weeds: Dalmatian (Linaria dalmatica) and yellow (L. vulgaris) toadflax in North America. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 8(7) 2828-53.
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Source: Wikipedia

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