The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Abbott, RT & PA Morris. 1995. Shells of the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts and the West Indies, 4th Edition. Houghton Mifflin. New York, NY. USA. 350 pp.
  • Andrews, J. 1994. A Field Guide to Shells of the Florida Coast. Gulf Publishing. Houston, TX. USA. 182 pp.
  • Arnold, WS, Bert, TM, Marelli, DC, Cruz-Lopez, H & PA Gill. 1996. Genotype-specific growth of hard clams (genus Mercenaria) in a hybrid zone: variation among habitats. Mar. Biol. 125: 129-139.
  • Bouchet P.,Gofas S. & Rosenberg G. (2013). WoRMS Mollusca: World Marine Mollusca database (version Feb 2013). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Busby, D. 1986. An overview of the Indian River Clamming Industry and the Indian River Lagoon. Florida Sea Grant Extension Program. Technical Paper No. 44. Project IR-85-7. 45 pp.
  • Coan E.V. & Valentich-Scott P. 2012. Bivalve seashells of tropical West America. Marine bivalve mollusks from Baja California to northern Peru. 2 vols, 1258
  • Dillon, Jr., RT. 1992. Minimal hybridization between populations of the hard clams, Mercenaria mercenaria and Mercenaria campechiensis, co-occurring in South Carolina. Bull. Mar. Sci. 50: 411-416.
  • Holotype: Am J Concology. 7(2): 147,pl.16,fig.1.
  • Holotype: Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus. 26(1312)_: 396, 406, pl. 15, fig. 8.
  • Huber M. 2010. Compendium of bivalves. A full-color guide to 3,300 of the world’s marine bivalves. A status on Bivalvia after 250 years of research. Hackenheim: ConchBooks. 901
  • Stewart, VN. 1981. Sea-stats: a summary of information and statistics on Florida's marine organisms and the marine environment. No. 7: Clams. Florida Department of Natural Resources. 11 pp.
  • Surge, D & KJ Walker. 2006. Geochemical variation in microstructural shell layers of the southern quahog (Mercenaria campechiensis): implications for reconstructing seasonality. Palaeoecol. 237: 182-190.
  • Syntype: Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus. 26(1312): 377.
  • Turgeon, D. D., A. E. Bogan, E. V. Coan, W. K. Emerson, W. G. Lyons, W. Pratt, et al. 1988. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: mollusks. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 16. vii + 277
  • Turgeon, D. D., J. F. Quinn, Jr., A. E. Bogan, E. V. Coan, F. G. Hochberg, W. G. Lyons, et al. 1998. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Mollusks, 2nd ed. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 26. 526


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