The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Abbott, R.T. (1954). American seashells. New York: D-Van Nostrand Company Inc. External link.
  • Abbott, R.T., (1974). American seashells: the marine mollusca of the Atlantic and Pacific coast of North America, 2nd edn. New York: Van Nostrand. External link.
  • Bouchet P., Gofas S. & Rosenberg G. (2015). WoRMS Mollusca: World Marine Mollusca database (version Feb 2013). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Brunel, P., L. Bosse, & G. Lamarche. 1998. Catalogue of the marine invertebrates of the estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence. Canadian Special Publication of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 126. 405 p.
  • Cagnelli, L.M., Griesbach, S.J., Packer, D.B. & Weissberger, E. (1999). Essential fish habitat source document: Spisula solidissima, Life History & Habitat characteristics. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-NE, 142. External link.
  • Carter, Michelle. 2005. Spisula solidissima. Atlantic surf clam. Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Sub-programme [on-line]. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. [cited 18/03/2011]. Available from:
  • Dufour SC; Beninger PG. 2001. A functional interpretation of cilia and mucocyte distributions on the abfrontal surface of bivalve gills. Marine Biology. 138(2): 295-309.
  • Fay, C. W.; Neves, R. J. & Pardue, G. B. 1983. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Mid-Atlantic). Surf Clam. United States, Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Biological Report 82(11.13).
  • Fay, C.W., Neves, R.J. & Pardue, G.B. (1983). Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Mid-Atlantic) Surf Calm. U.S. Fish and wildlife Service, Division of Biological Services, FWS/OBS-82/11.13. U.S Army Corps of Engineers, TR EL-82-4., External link.
  • Hare, M. P.; Weinberg, J.; Peterfalvy, O. & Davidson, M. 2010. The “Southern” surfclam (Spisula solidissima similis) found north of its reported range: A commercially harvested population in Long Island Sound, New York. Journal of Shellfish Research 29(4):799-807.
  • Huber M. 2010. Compendium of bivalves. A full-color guide to 3,300 of the world’s marine bivalves. A status on Bivalvia after 250 years of research. Hackenheim: ConchBooks. 901
  • Huber, M.; Rosenberg, G. 2011. Spisula solidissima (Dillwyn, 1817). Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at
  • ITIS database
  • Ma, H.; Grassle, J. & Rosario, J. 2006. Initial recruitment and growth of surfclams (Spisula solidissima Dillwyn) on the inner continental shelf of New Jersey. Journal of Shellfish Research 25: 481-489.
  • Meinkoth, N.A. 1981. Field guide to North American seashore creatures. The Audubon Society. Alfred A. Knopf. New York. 799 p.
  • Turgeon, D. D., A. E. Bogan, E. V. Coan, W. K. Emerson, W. G. Lyons, W. Pratt, et al. 1988. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: mollusks. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 16. vii + 277
  • Turgeon, D. D., J. F. Quinn, Jr., A. E. Bogan, E. V. Coan, F. G. Hochberg, W. G. Lyons, et al. 1998. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Mollusks, 2nd ed. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 26. 526
  • Weinberg J.R. 1993. Surfclam populations of the middle Atlantic, southern New England, and Georges Bank for 1992. Report of the 15th Northeast Regional Stock Assessment Workshop (15th SAW) The Plenary, p. 10-12. Northeast Fisheries Science Center Reference Document 93-01.
  • Cargnelli, L. M.; Griesbach, S. J.; Packer, D. B. & Weissberger, E. 1999. Atlantic surfclam, Spisula solidissima, life history and habitat characteristics. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-NE 142: 1-13.


EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!