Overview

Distribution

Placopecten magellanicus, Deep Sea Scallops, are native to the Atlanic Ocean and range from Labrador to North Carolina. Labrador is located very near New Foundland on the Eastern coast of Canada. They have now become more dispersed throughout this area as a result of farmers introducing them to varying locations in order to breed them for culinary purposes, but the majority remain in the Northern Atlantic Ocean.

Biogeographic Regions: nearctic (Native ); atlantic ocean (Native )

  • Borradaile, L., Potts. 1963. The Invertebrata: A Manual for the Use of Students. Cambridge: The University Press.
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51.7°N to 35.3°N; 75°W to 56°W, Labrador to Cape Hatteras, North Carolina
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Physical Description

Morphology

Deep sea scallops secrete two vavles, which are large, thick, and oval-shaped. This shell is often greater in height than width. The valves are unequal in size, with the lower being almost flat and the upper being convex. Grooves radiate from the hinge towards the shell edge. The upper valve is dark in color, usually red or pinkish brown and sometimes rayed with white, while the lower is lighter and is pinkish white. The shell's inside is a glossy white with a distinctive muscular scar where the soft body attaches. The muscle itself is white or tan in color and has two labial or feeding palps with a mouth in between. The scallop's body is wedge-shaped with a ventrally located foot. The gills or ctenidia are in the mantle cavity and are commonly enlarged and have a complex arrangement. A row of eyes peaks from in between the the valves and are attached to the mantle cavity.

Range length: 10 to 23 cm.

Average length: 15 cm.

Other Physical Features: ectothermic ; heterothermic ; bilateral symmetry ; polymorphic

  • Pennak, R. 1989. Fresh Water Invertabrates of the United States: Protozoa to Mollusca. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc..
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Ecology

Habitat

Placopecten magellanicus live in moderately deep water. Populations north of Cape Cod live in shallow water, approximately twenty meters. South of Cape Cod, populations live in deeper water ranging from forty to two-hundred meters. They can only survive in marine environments and prefer the cool water of the Northern Atlantic, which stays around sixty-eight degrees Fahrenheit. While resting, they lie on the sand or mud of the ocean bottom.

Range depth: 20 to 200 m.

Average depth: 40 m.

Habitat Regions: temperate ; saltwater or marine

Aquatic Biomes: pelagic ; coastal

  • Hart, D. January 2001. "Status of Fisheries Resources off Northeastern United States" (On-line). Accessed 11/04/04 at http://www.wh.whoi.edu/sos/spsyn/iv/scallop/.
  • Morris, P. 1951. Field guide to the shells of our Atlantic coast. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
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infralittoral and circalittoral of the Gulf and estuary
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Depth range based on 7904 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 5556 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 1487
  Temperature range (°C): 0.713 - 26.480
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.857 - 23.693
  Salinity (PPS): 31.008 - 36.259
  Oxygen (ml/l): 3.415 - 7.664
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.131 - 1.544
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.599 - 17.288

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 1487

Temperature range (°C): 0.713 - 26.480

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.857 - 23.693

Salinity (PPS): 31.008 - 36.259

Oxygen (ml/l): 3.415 - 7.664

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.131 - 1.544

Silicate (umol/l): 1.599 - 17.288
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Trophic Strategy

The deep sea scallop's ctenidia and labial cilia serve as instruments for food collection. There is a ventral and dorsal siphon. Water enters the ventral siphon and a current is maintained to pass through the gill lamellae. Here, the scallop separates food particles from mud and sand according to size. The ctnedia then transport the food particles to the mantle cavity and circulate over many groups of cilia. The particles become covered with mucus and are pushed either toward the mouth or the rejection path, which leaves through the dorsal siphon. The mucus covered food is then carried to the stomach through the esophagus, but first passes through the crystalline style, a gelantinous rotating rod. Here, the food is digested in intracellular food vacoules and waste is removed through the intestines and out through the anus.

Foods eaten include microscopic plants, bacteria and organic particles.

Plant Foods: algae; phytoplankton

Other Foods: detritus ; microbes

Foraging Behavior: filter-feeding

Primary Diet: herbivore (Algivore); planktivore ; detritivore

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Associations

P. magellanicus play a critical role in their ecosystems. While feeding, they recycle incredible amounts of organic material and filter harmful bacteria from the water. They also aid in purifying polluted water.

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Even though deep sea scallops have a high concentration of sensory organs near the edge of the mantle cavity, they only have a relatively simple nervous system. Visceral ganglia near the optic lobes fuse with other ganglia to form a simplistic "visceral brain", which constitutes most of the scallop's nervous system. The concentration of sensory organs allow the scallop to be aware of its surroundings at all times. Most prominent and useful are their row of eyes between the two vavles, which aid in watching for predators. The eyes are usually coblat blue in color and are located on the tip of pallial tentacles. Although their eyes are complete with cornea and lens, they are unable to discern shapes. They can only detect changes in light and movement and react to flashing lights or stripes that move at particular speeds, which resemble speeds of their predators, starfish and whelks. The chemical sensitive pallial tentacles are also able to react to excretions of starfish. When a predator is spotted or the scallop is touched, the scallop quickly propels itself from danger. They can do this by rapidly clapping their two valves together and moving in jerks or darts. Movement occurs through a type of jet propulsion. A jet of water is forced backwards and out through the wings and hinge. The locomotion is mainly powered by the large muscle known as the body or mantle cavity.

Known Predators:

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General Ecology

DMS in the odor landscape of the sea

Dimethyl Sulfide or DMS is present throughout the ocean(1). It’s an important odor component of many fish and shellfish, including clams, mussels, oysters, scallops, crabs and shrimp(2-9). Where does it come from? Usually from the marine plants they feed on.

Many species of plants and algae produce DMS, but not all species produce significant amounts of it. Nearly all of these are marine, and they tend to be in closely related groups with other DMS-producers, including Chlorophyte (green) seaweeds, the Dinophyceae in the dinoflagellates, and some members of the Chrysophyceae and the Bacillariophyceae (two classes of diatoms). Other large groups, like cyanobacteria and freshwater algae, tend not to produce DMS. (10,11)

Why do these groups produce DMS? In algae, most researchers believe a related chemical, DMSP, is used by the algae for osmoregulation- by ensuring the ion concentration inside their cells stays fairly close to the salinity in the seawater outside, they prevent osmotic shock. Otherwise, after a sudden exposure to fresh water (rain at the sea surface, for instance) cells could swell up and explode. In vascular plants, like marsh grasses and sugar cane, it’s not clear what DMS is used for. (12,13)

Freshly harvested shellfish can smell like DMS because DMSP has accumulated in their tissue from the algae in their diet. Some animals, including giant Tridacna clams and the intertidal flatworm Convoluta roscoffensis, harbor symbiotic algae in their tissues, which produce DMSP; this may not be important to their symbioses, but for Tridacna, the high DMS levels can be a problem for marketing the clams to human consumers. After death, DMSP begins to break down into DMS. A little DMS creates a pleasant flavor, but high concentrations offend the human palate.(2,14)

Not all grazers retain DMS in their tissues, though. At sea, DMS is released when zooplankton feed on algae. It’s been shown in the marine copepods Labidocera aestiva and Centropages hamatus feeding on the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium nelson that nearly all the DMS in the consumed algae is quickly released during feeding and digestion.(15) This has a disadvantage for the grazing zooplankton. Marine predators, like procellariiform seabirds, harbor seals, penguins, whale sharks, cod, and coral reef fishes like brown chromis, Creole wrasse and boga, can use the smell of DMS to locate zooplankton to feed on. (8,16,17)

It’s not easy to measure how much DMS is released from the Ocean into the air every year. Recent estimates suggest 13-37 Teragrams, or 1.3-3.7 billion kilograms. This accounts for about half the natural transport of Sulfur into the atmosphere, is the conveyor belt by which Sulfur cycles from the ocean back to land. In the atmosphere, DMS is oxidized into several compounds that serve as Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN). The presence of CCN in the air determines when and where clouds form, which affects not only the Water cycle, but the reflection of sunlight away from the Earth. This is why climate scientists believe DMS plays an important role in regulating the Earth’s climate. (12,18)

  • 1) BATES, T. S., J. D. Cline, R. H. Gammon, and S. R. Kelly-Hansen. 1987. Regional and seasonal variations in the flux of oceanic dimethylsulfide to the atmosphere. J. Geophys. Res.92: 2930- 2938
  • 10) Malin, G., Kirst, G.O. 1997. Algal Production of Dimethyl Sulfide and its Atmospheric Role. J. Phycol., 33:889-896
  • 11) Keller, M.D., Bellows, W.K., Guillard, R.L. 1989. Dimethyl Sulfide Production in Marine Phytoplankton. Biogenic Sulfur in the Environment. Chapter 11, pp 167–182. ACS Symposium Series, Vol. 393. ISBN13: 9780841216129eISBN: 9780841212442.
  • 12) Yoch, D.C. 2002. Dimethylsulfoniopropionate: Its Sources, Role in the Marine Food Web, and Biological Degradation to Dimethylsulfide. Appl Environ Microbiol., 68(12):5804–5815.
  • 13) Otte ML, Wilson G, Morris JT, Moran BM. 2004. Dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP) and related compounds in higher plants. J Exp Bot., 55(404):1919-25
  • 14) Van Bergeijk, S.A., Stal, L.J. 2001. Dimethylsulfonopropionate and dimethylsulfide in the marine flatworm Convoluta roscoffensis and its algal symbiont. Marine Biology, 138:209-216
  • 15) Dacey , J.W.H. and Stuart G. Wakeham. 1986. Oceanic Dimethylsulfide: Production during Zooplankton Grazing on Phytoplankton. Science, 233( 4770):1314-1316
  • 16) Nevitt, G. A., Veit, R. R. & Kareiva, P. (1995) Dimethyl Sulphide as a Foraging Cue for Antarctic Procellariiform Seabirds. Nature 376, 680-682.
  • 17) Debose, J.L., Lema, S.C., & Nevitt, G.A. (2008). Dimethylsulfionoproprianate as a foraging cue for reef fishes. Science, 319, 1356.
  • 18) Charlson, R.J., Lovelock, J.E., Andraea, M.O., Warren, S.G. 1987. Oceanic phytoplankton, atmospheric sulphur, cloud albedo and climate. Nature, 326:655-661
  • 2) Hill, RW, Dacey, JW and A Edward. 2000. Dimethylsulfoniopropionate in giant clams (Tridacnidae). The Biological Bulletin, 199(2):108-115
  • 3) Brooke, R.O., Mendelsohn, J.M., King, F.J. 1968. Significance of Dimethyl Sulfide to the Odor of Soft-Shell Clams. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 25:(11) 2453-2460
  • 4) Linder, M., Ackman, R.G. 2002. Volatile Compounds Recovered by Solid-Phase Microextraction from Fresh Adductor Muscle and Total Lipids of Sea Scallop (Placopecten magellanicus) from Georges Bank (Nova Scotia). Journal of Food Science, 67(6): 2032–2037
  • 5) Le Guen, S., Prost, C., Demaimay, M. 2000. Critical Comparison of Three Olfactometric Methods for the Identification of the Most Potent Odorants in Cooked Mussels (Mytilus edulis). J. Agric. Food Chem., 48(4): 1307–1314
  • 6) Piveteau, F., Le Guen, S., Gandemer, G., Baud, J.P., Prost, C., Demaimay, M. 2000. Aroma of Fresh Oysters Crassostrea gigas: Composition and Aroma Notes. J. Agric. Food Chem., 48(10): 4851–4857
  • 7) Tanchotikul, U., Hsieh, T.C.Y. 2006. Analysis of Volatile Flavor Components in Steamed Rangia Clam by Dynamic Headspace Sampling and Simultaneous Distillation and Extraction. Journal of Food Science, 56(2): 327–331
  • 8) Ellingsen, O.F., Doving, K.B. 1986. Chemical fractionation of shrimp extracts inducing bottom food search behavior in cod (Gadus morhua L.). J. Chem. Ecol., 12(1): 155-168
  • 9) Sarnoski, P.J., O’Keefe, S.F., Jahncke, M.L., Mallikarjunan, P., Flick, G. 2010. Analysis of crab meat volatiles as possible spoilage indicators for blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) meat by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Food Chemistry, 122(3):930–935
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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Deep sea scallops respond to sight and touch. The scallops' eyes are very developed with corneas and lenses, which serves as their dominant means of interaction. The only time they communicate with other scallops is during reproduction. The sperm stimulate the release of eggs.

Communication Channels: visual ; tactile

Other Communication Modes: photic/bioluminescent ; pheromones

Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; chemical

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Life Cycle

After fertilization, P. magellanicus develop into a ciliated larva known as the trochosphere. At this stage, they have cilia near their tops and also have a cilia ring around their middle. Then, the larvae quickly mature to veligers. These planktotrophic larvae are ciliary feeders and float in plankton fields for approximately two or three months. The larvae continue to develop and begin to secrete two valves from their mantle cavity as they reach adulthood. During the first several years of life, scallops rapidly increase in size and bulk. The third to fifth year has the most growth. They increase shell height by fifty to eighty percent and quadruple in body weight. Once adult scallops, they become free swimming.

Development - Life Cycle: metamorphosis

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Life Expectancy

Deep sea scallops reach full adulthood at four years of age and tend to live several years afterward. On average, they live for approximately six to eight years.

Typical lifespan

Status: wild:
6 to 8 years.

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Reproduction

Instead of releasing eggs and sperm randomly, scallops stimulate one another to spawn at the same time. The sperm is released first and then enters the food current of other scallops, which causes them to release eggs into the mantle cavity.

By the age of two, P. magellanicus are sexually mature, but do not actively produce eggs until four. The majority of deep sea scallops undergo multiple sex changes during their lifetime. They are known as functionally ambisexual and shelter the ova and sperm in the same gonad, but the two are produced in different areas of the gonad. About four percent are hermaphrodites and carry both an ovary and testis within the mantle cavity. The ovary is a very bright pink when carrying ripe eggs and the cream colored testis lie behind the ovary. The two are fused together and have short ducts with no glands. Eggs are not released in the water, but wait for the sperm in the mantle cavity. Fertilization occurs when the sperm usually meet the eggs near the opening of the mantle cavity. Then, the scallops immediately release the zygotes into the water.

Breeding season: Late Summer and early Fall, but can also occur in Spring within populations living in the Mid-Atlantic region

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 2 (low) years.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): Two (low) years.

Key Reproductive Features: year-round breeding ; simultaneous hermaphrodite; sexual ; fertilization (Internal )

Because Deep Sea Scallops create so many sperm and eggs to ensure numerous offspring, they do not have the energy to take care of the offspring. Also, external fertilization does not allow the parents to keep track of their offspring. They produce too many offspring to differentiate between their own and the hundreds of other offspring in the area.

Parental Investment: pre-fertilization (Provisioning)

  • Borradaile, L., Potts. 1963. The Invertebrata: A Manual for the Use of Students. Cambridge: The University Press.
  • Hart, D. January 2001. "Status of Fisheries Resources off Northeastern United States" (On-line). Accessed 11/04/04 at http://www.wh.whoi.edu/sos/spsyn/iv/scallop/.
  • Morton, J. 1979. Molluscs. London: Hutchinson & Co. Ltd..
  • Pearse, V., J. Pearse, M. Buchsbaum, R. Buchsbaum. 1987. Living Invertebrata. California: The Bookwood Press.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Placopecten magellanicus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There is 1 barcode sequence available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is the sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen.

Other sequences that do not yet meet barcode criteria may also be available.

ATGGCAAATTCCCACAAAGACATCGGAACGATATATTTAATGGTGGGGATGTGGTCAGGGATGGGTGGATTTTCTTTAAGGTGGATGATCCGCTTAGAGCTAAGGCGCCCAGGAATGTGGTTGCCTAGG---GTGGAGTTGTATAATAGGATTGTTACTTTGCATGCTATTATGATAATTTTTTTTTTTGTTATGCCTGTTTTAATTGGGGGGTTTGGGAATTGGCTGCTCCCTTTGCTTTTAGGGGCTATTGATATAAGGTTTCCTCGTGTGAATGCCTTTAGGTTTTGGTTGGTGCCTCCTGCTCTTTATATGGTAGTGTCTTCTTCTTTTATGGACGGGCTAAGAGGAACTGGGTGGACTATGTACCCTCCGCTCTCTAGAACCCCGTACCACGGGGGTATTAGAACGGACATGGTTATTTTAGGGCTGCATTTGGCTGGGGTAAGGTCTTCTGCTGCTTCTATTAATTATTTAGTTACTTTTTTAAATGTTCGGGGCCTTGCTTATAAGGCGGAGTTTGCTCCTCCTTTTGCGTGGGCTTTGACTGTGACTAGGTTTTTGTTGTTAATTTCAATTCCTGTGTTGGCGGGGGGGCTAACAATGTTGATTTTAGATCGGCACTTCAACTGTACCTTTTTTGATCCTGCGGGTGGGGGGGATCCTGTGCTTTTTCAGCATTTATTTTGGTTTTTTGGTCACCCAGAGGTGTATGTGTTAATTTTGCCTGGGTTTGGTTTAGTCTCACATGTATTAGTGTTTTACACTAAGAAGCTTCGGGTTTTTGGTTCTGTGGCTATAATATATGCAATAATTTCTATCGGAATTCTTGGTTTTATTGTGTGGGGGCACCACATGTTTACGGTGGGGTTGGATGTGGATACTCGTT
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Placopecten magellanicus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Genomic DNA is available from 3 specimens with morphological vouchers housed at British Antarctic Survey
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Deep sea scallops are predominantly used in cuisine. The scallop's valves are removed and the soft adductor muscles are consumed in many dishes around the world. The shells hold an artistic appeal and are bought by thousands of tourists visiting the Northern Coast. Indians continue to use the convex shells as plates.

Positive Impacts: food

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Wikipedia

Placopecten magellanicus

Placopecten magellanicus, the Atlantic deep-sea scallop (previously known as Pecten tenuicostatus and as Pecten grandis and once referred to as the "giant scallop"[2]) is a commercially important pectinid bivalve mollusk native to the western Atlantic Ocean.[3]

Description[edit]

Neural map

The shell has a classic form, with smooth shell and edges, unlike Pecten maximus (common name the "great scallop" or "king scallop") which has flutes and scalloped edges; size is around 80 mm, with individuals up to 170 mm in diameter. The shell is generally pinkish-red in color, with striped variegation to darker shades appearing in many individuals. The adductor muscle itself is large, often 30–40 mm in diameter. Like all scallops, P. magellanicus has photoreceptive eyes along the edge of the pinkish mantle.[4]

Range and habitat[edit]

P. magellanicus is found on the continental shelf of the northwest Atlantic from the north shore of the Gulf of St. Lawrence south to Cape Hatteras, North Carolina.[5]

Sea scallops typically occur at depths ranging from 18–110 m, but may also occur in waters as shallow as 2 m in estuaries and embayments along the Maine coast and in Canada. In southern areas, scallops are primarily found at depths between 45 and 75 m, and are less common in shallower water (25–45 m) due to high temperature. Although sea scallops are not common at depths greater than about 110 m, some populations have been found as deep as 384 m, and deep-water populations at 170–180 m have been reported in the Gulf of Maine. Sea scallops often occur in aggregations called beds. Beds may be sporadic (perhaps lasting for a few years) or essentially permanent (e.g., commercial beds supporting the Georges Bank fishery). The highest concentration of many permanent beds appears to correspond to areas of suitable temperatures, food availability, substrate, and where physical oceanographic features such as fronts and gyres may keep larval stages in the vicinity of the spawning population.[5]

Adult sea scallops are generally found on firm sand, gravel, shells, and rock. Other invertebrates associated with scallop beds include sponges, hydroids, anemones, bryozoans, polychaetes, mussels, moon snails, whelks, amphipods, crabs, lobsters, sea stars, sea cucumbers, and tunicates.[5]

Sustainability of fishery[edit]

According to NOAA, the Atlantic sea scallop fishery is healthy, and is harvested at sustainable levels. The sea scallop fishery is the largest wild scallop fishery in the world. In 2008, 53.5 million pounds of sea scallop meats worth $370 million were harvested in the United States. Massachusetts and New Jersey are responsible for the majority of the U.S. harvest.[6] The Monterey Bay Aquarium Seafood Watch lists sea scallops as a "Good Alternative," its second best rating.[7] . However, the Atlantic sea scallop is red listed by Greenpeace who state that scallop stocks are being overfished and that the fishing methods used are destroying corals and sponges. According to Greenpeace the fishery of scallops kills nearly 1,000 loggerhead sea turtles every year.[8]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=all&search_value=Placopecten+magellanicus&search_kingdom=every&search_span=exactly_for&categories=All&source=html&search_credRating=All
  2. ^ Percy A. Morris (November 2001). A Field Guide to Shells: Atlantic and Gulf Coasts and the West Indies. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 28. ISBN 0-618-16439-1. 
  3. ^ Barucca M, Olmo E, Schiaparelli S, Canapa A (2004) Molecular phylogeny of the family Pectinidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia)
  4. ^ Mullen, D.M., and J.R. Moring. 1986. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requi rernents of coastal fishes and invertebrates (North Atlantic) -- sea scallop. U. S. Fish Wildl. Serv. Biol. Rep. 82(11.67). U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, TR EL- 82-4. 13 pp.
  5. ^ a b c NOAA (2004). Sea Scallop, Placopecten magellanicus, Life History and Habitat Characteristics (2 ed.). U. S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE. pp. 1–6. Retrieved 08/11/10.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  6. ^ Atlantic sea scallop NOAA FishWatch. Retrieved 11 November 2012.
  7. ^ http://www.montereybayaquarium.org/cr/SeafoodWatch/web/sfw_factsheet.aspx?fid=14
  8. ^ http://www.greenpeace.org/usa/en/campaigns/oceans/seafood/red-fish/
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