Overview

Distribution

occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Global Range: (200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)) Range extends from south-central British Columbia south through Washington, Oregon, southern Idaho, eastern California, Nevada, Utah, western Colorado, northern, western, and much of southernwestern Arizona, northeastern Baja California, and northwestern mainland Mexico (Mulcahy 2008).

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Distribution: chlorophaea: USA (New Mexico), Mexico (Sonora, Sinaloa)  catalinae: Isla Santa Catalina (Gulf of California)  deserticola: Canada (S British Columbia), USA (Washington, Oregon, Idaho, California, Nevada, Utah, NW Arizona), Mexico (N Baja California)  loreala: USA (Utah, W Kansas, NW New Mexico, NE Arizona)  tiburonensis: Islas Tiburón and San Esteban.
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Physical Description

Type Information

Syntype for Hypsiglena torquata chlorophaea
Catalog Number: USNM 4676
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Locality: Fort Buchanan, Santa Cruz, Arizona, United States, North America
  • Syntype: Cope, E. D. 1860. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. 12: 247.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat Type: Terrestrial

Comments: This snake generally inhabits arid and semiarid plains, canyons, and hillsides, usually in rocky, dissected or hilly terrain with sandy or gravelly soils, including areas dominated by desert, grassland, shrubland, savanna, or woodland (Hammerson 1999, Stebbins 2003). Periods of inactivity are spend under rocks or other surface cover, in crevices, or underground. In Idaho, individuals can be found under surface rocks in spring, but generally not in summer (Diller and Wallace 1986).

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Migration

Non-Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species do not make significant seasonal migrations. Juvenile dispersal is not considered a migration.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Trophic Strategy

Comments: This snake eats mainly lizards and lizard eggs, sometimes small snakes, frogs, insects, and salamanders (Stebbins 1985, Diller and Wallace 1986).

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Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300

Comments: This species is represented by a large number of occurrences or subpopulations.

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Global Abundance

100,000 to >1,000,000 individuals

Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but undoubtedly exceeds 100,000. The species occupies a wide range and is locally fairly common.

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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

In Idaho, adult females deposit a clutch of several eggs in June; males possibly are sexually mature in 1 year (Diller and Wallace 1986).

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Hypsiglena chlorophaea

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 6 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

ACTCGTTGACTCTTCTCAACAAACCACAAAGATATCGGAACCCTATACCTCCTGTTCGGGGCTTGATCCGGACTAGTTGGGGCATGCCTA---AGCATCCTTATACGAATAGAACTAACCCAGCCCGGCTCCCTCTTTGGAAGC---GATCAAATTTTTAACGTCTTAGTTACAGCCCACGCATTTATCATAATTTTCTTCATAGTCATACCAATCATAATCGGCGGGTTCGGTAACTGACTAATTCCACTCATA---ATCGGAGCCCCAGACATAGCCTTTCCACGGATAAATAACATAAGCTTCTGACTACTACCCCCAGCACTGCTCCTCCTACTATCATCTTCATACGTAGAAGCGGGGGCGGGCACAGGCTGAACAGTGTATCCACCCCTATCAGGAAATCTAGTACATTCTGGGCCATCAGTAGACCTA---GCAATTTTTTCCCTACACTTAGCAGGCGCCTCCTCCATCCTTGGGGCAATTAACTTCATTACAACATGTATCAACATAAAACCAAAATCTATACCAATATTTAATATCCCCCTGTTTGTATGATCAGTATTTATCACCGCCATTATACTCCTATTAGCCCTACCAGTACTAGCAGCG---GCAATTACCATATTACTCACAGACCGAAATTTAAACACTTCTTTCTTTGACCCGTGTGGGGGCGGAGATCCGGTATTATTCCAACACCTCTTCTGATTTTTCGGCCACCCAGAAGTTTACATCCTTATTCTCCCAGGATTTGGAATTATCTCAAGTATTATTACCTTTTATACAGGGAAAAAA---AACACATTTGGCTACACGAGCATAATCTGAGCAATAATATCAATTGCAATCCTGGGATTTGTCGTATGAGCCCACCACATATTCACAGTCGGACTAGACATCGACAGTCGGGCCTACTTCACTGCAGCAACAATAATCATTGCAATTCCAACAGGAATCAAAGTATTCGGATGATTG---GCCACTCTGACTGGAGGC---CAAATCAAATGAGAAACCCCAATCTACTGGGCATTGGGCTTTATTTTCTTATTCACTGTCGGGGGGATGACGGGAATCATTCTAGCAAACTCGTCACTAGATATTGTCCTACACGACACCTACTATGTTGTAGCACACTTCCACTATGTC---CTTTCTATAGGAGCCGTATTTGCTATCATAGGAGGACTAACCCACTGATTTCCACTGTTTTCAGGGTATACTCTAAACCAAACCATAACAAAAACCCAATTCTGAGTAATGTTTACCGGAGTAAACCTAACATTCTTCCCACAGCACTTTCTCGGTTTATCCGGAATGCCACGA---CGCTACTCTGACTTCCCAGACGCTTTCACC---ATTTGAAACACAACTTCATCAATCGGATCCACCATCTCCCTTATCGCCGTCCTAATATCCCTATTTATCGTATGAGAAGCATTAACATGCAAGCGAGAACTA---CAAATACCCCTAGGGAAAAAAACACAC
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Hypsiglena chlorophaea

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 6
Specimens with Barcodes: 9
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N1 - Critically Imperiled

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Global Short Term Trend: Relatively stable (=10% change)

Comments: Extent of occurrence, area of occupancy, number of subpopulations, and population size probably are relatively stable.

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Threats

Degree of Threat: Low

Comments: No major threats have been identified. The habitat generally tends to be unsuitable for incompatible human uses.

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