Overview

Distribution

Range Description

Babyrousa togeanensis is confined to the Togian Archipelago in Indonesia, between the northern and eastern Sulawesi peninsulas (Macdonald, 1993). Babirusa are found on the islands Batudaka, Togean, Talatakoh and Malenge (Akbar et al., 2007).
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Babirusa generally inhabit tropical rain forest on the banks of rivers and ponds abounding in water plants. On the Togean islands babirusa were also sighted in mixed gardens, regrowing scrub of former ‘ladang’, secondary forest, village edges, freshwater swamps, and beaches (Akbar et al., 2007).

In common with most of the other suids, babirusa are omnivorous and both wild and captive individuals consume a wide variety of leaf, root, fruit and animal matter (invertebrates and small vertebrates). Babyrusa on Sulawesi visit volcanic salt licks and drink the water and ingest the soil (Clayton, 1996; Leus et al., 2002), and so they might also do this on the Togian Islands. Although detailed studies of their diet in the wild still need to be carried out, a review of the available information from the wild combined with studies on the stomachs and digestive abilities of captive animals suggest that from an anatomical/digestive point of view, they are most likely non-ruminant forestomach fermenting frugivores/concentrate selectors (Leus et al., 2004). Their jaws and teeth are reported to be strong enough to crack very hard nuts with ease. However, babirusa do not exhibit the rooting behaviour typical of other suids because of the absence of a rostral bone in the nose. They will probe soft sand as well as wet, muddy places for food.

On the Togian islands troops of up to eleven individuals have been observed (Ito et al, 2005). During interview surveys on the Togian islands, 37% of respondents considered babirusa to be solitary, 29.6% reported them to occur in groups composed of one adult pair with a litter and 29.5% of respondents reported a group size of more than 5 typically composed of an adult males with multiple females and their litters (Akbar et al., 2007).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
EN
Endangered

Red List Criteria
B1ab(iii,v); C2a(i)

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
Macdonald, A.A., Burton, J. & Leus, K.

Reviewer/s
Leus, K. & Oliver, W. ( Pig, Peccary & Hippo Red List Authority)

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Endangered because its extent of occurrence is less than 5,000 km², its distribution is severely fragmented, and there is continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat; and because its population size is estimated to number fewer than 2,500 mature individuals, there is an observed continuing decline in the number of mature individuals, and no subpopulation contains more than 250 mature individuals.
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Population

Population
Selmier (1983) estimated that the total 1978 population on the Togian Islands was in the region of 500 to 1,000 individuals. Recent estimates by Ito (pers. comm., 2008) place the upper limit of population size at about 500. Recent estimation from questionnaires showed local residents did not provide agreement on population size (ranges from <100 to >1,000), but the interview surveys did suggest that at least between 1995 and 2000 there had not been a sharp population decline (Akbar et al., 2007).

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
Babirusa on the Togian islands are susceptible to habitat loss due to forest clearance and forest fires, to disturbance by humans, occasional hunting by the local people if perceived as a threat to crops and predation by dogs (Ito et al, 2005; Akbar et al., 2007, Ito pers. comm., 2008). Hunting for food only occurs in a few non-Muslim village communities. In 1998 two thirds of Malenge Island’s forest was damaged by fire (due to annual climatic variation). No large animal carcasses were found and babirusa have been seen in several of these localities since, but the fire may have impacted food availability for the species (Ito et al., 2005, Akbar et al. 2006).
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
All species of babirusa were accorded full protection under Indonesian law in 1931 (Dammerman, 1950; Setyodirwiryo, 1959). The species has been included on Appendix I of CITES since 1982, although international trade in this species is not thought to be have been an important issue in recent times (Macdonald 1993). The Togian Islands have been designated a Marine National Park since 2004 (Kepulauan Togean), incorporating 336,773 ha of sea and 25,832 ha of land (http://www.dephut.go.id/INFORMASI/TN%20INDO-ENGLISH/tn_index.htm – accessed 5 June 2008).
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Wikipedia

Togian babirusa

The Togian Babirusa (Babyrousa togeanensis), also known as the Malenge Babirusa,[2][3] is the largest species of babirusa. It is endemic to the Togian Islands of Indonesia, but was considered a subspecies of Babyrousa babyrussa until 2002.[1] Compared to the better-known north Sulawesi babirusa, the Togian babirusa is larger, has a well-developed tail-tuft, and the upper canines of the male are relatively "short, slender, rotated forwards, and always converge".[4][5]

References

  1. ^ a b Macdonald, A.A., Burton, J. & Leus, K. (2008). "Babyrousa togeanensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/136472.
  2. ^ http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/classification/Babyrousa.html
  3. ^ http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2009:123:0003:0061:EN:PDF
  4. ^ Meijaard, E. and Groves, C. P. (2002). Upgrading three subspecies of Babirusa (Babyrousa sp.) to full species level. IUCN/SSC Pigs, Peccaries, and Hippos Specialist Group (PPHSG) Newsletter 2(2): 33-39.
  5. ^ Meijaard, E., J. P. d'Huart, and W. L. R. Oliver (2011). Babirusa (Babyrousa). Pp. 274–276 in: Wilson, D. E., and R. A. Mittermeier, eds. (2011). Handbook of the Mammals of the World. Vol. 2, Hoofed Mammals. ISBN 978-84-96553-77-4
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