Overview

Distribution

Range Description

Although the historical range of this species may once have been much more extensive, it seems to be currently restricted to limestone areas in the western part of Quang Binh and Quang Tri Provinces (from 19°39’N, 105°29’E south to 16°10’N, 107°40’E), and in the eastern part of Khammouan Savannakhet Provinces in Lao PDR (Nadler et al. 2003). Its range in Lao PDR appears to be limited (Nadler et al. 2003), where it has only been recorded with certainty from Hin Nam No National Biodiversity Conservation Area (Duckworth et al. 1999). The western limit of the range of the species in Lao PDR is unclear. In Viet Nam, it is confirmed from Tuyen Hoa, Minh Hoa, Bo Trach, Le Thuy, and Quang Ninh districts in Quang Binh Province (Nadler et al. 2003) and Huoug Hoa in Quang Tri Province (BirdLife International 2005). There is no current evidence for the distribution of the species north of Quang Binh, but the extent of limestone suggests that historically it may well have occurred further north. Records from Gia Lai Province are based on misidentification. The form ebenus is restricted to Khammouane and Savannakhet Provinces in Lao PDR, with a marginal extension into the western part of Quang Binh Province, Viet Nam. The precise limits of the range are unclear, particularly in Viet Nam. The overlap zones of this form with laotum and hatinhensis are not well defined.
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Physical Description

Type Information

Type for Trachypithecus ebenus
Catalog Number: USNM 240489
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Mammals
Sex/Stage: Female; Adult
Preparation: Skin; Skull; Partial Skeleton
Collector(s): F. Wulsin
Year Collected: 1924
Locality: Lai Chau, possibly, or more probably Fan Si Pan mountain chain (22 30 N 103 50 E) (see Brandon-Jones 1995: 15), Vietnam ?, Asia
  • Type: Brandon-Jones, D. 1995 Jun 30. The Raffles Bulletin Of Zoology. 43: 15.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species is typically found in forested habitats associated with karst/limestone environments (Pham Nhat 2002). The natural habitat in Quang Binh and Quang Tri is now restricted to a band of forest near the Lao border (Nadler et al. 2003), and forests are heavily degraded in Tuyen Hoa and northern Minh Hoa Districts (Pham Nhat et al. 1996a). In Lao PDR, the species is associated with non-limestone rock outcrops on steep or precipitous mountain slopes. It reaches approximately 1,500 m in elevation. It is folivorous, terrestrial and arboreal, and diurnal.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Trachypithecus hatinhensis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Trachypithecus hatinhensis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
EN
Endangered

Red List Criteria
A2cd

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
Xuan Canh, L., Khac Quyet, L., Thanh Hai, D. & Timmins, R.J.

Reviewer/s
Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Endangered as the species is likely to have undergone a decline of more than 50% over the last three generations (36 years, given a generation length of 12 years) due to the ongoing loss and decline of habitat and effects of hunting.

History
  • 2000
    Endangered
  • 2000
    Endangered
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Population

Population
There is no reliable population estimate available for this species. The Phong Nha-Khe Bang area probably has the largest remaining single population of hatinhensis globally (Nadler et al. 2003). Sightings in Lao PDR are occasional (Nadler et al. 2003). Although a large area of suitable habitat remains in Phong Nha, population density appears very low (Nadler et al. 2003). Based on interviews and field observations, Pham Nhat et al. (1996) estimated 530-670 individuals in Phong Nha-Ke Bang; 50-70 in the Hoa Son area; 250-350 in the Thuong Hoa area; and 200-250 in the Phong Nha area. However, this is very likely to be a significant underestimate of the size of this population, and may also include individuals currently assigned to the form T. ebenus in Lao PDR. Individuals assigned to T. ebenus are also hatinhensis, assuming it is confirmed that this form is only a morph of the species.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
The main threat to this species is hunting, as shooting of primates is quite common throughout its range (Nadler et al. 2003). The animals are killed for meat, as well as for traditional “medicine” and the wildlife trade (Nadler et al. 2003). Snaring is reported to be the predominant hunting method in Phong Nha-Ke Bang (Timmins et al. 1999), with an increase since 1996 (Nadler et al. 2003). Hunting with rifles has appeared to diminish since 1995, probably due to gun legislation controls, confiscation of guns by local authorities, and a decrease of hunting success (Nadler et al. 2003). Road construction around Phong Nha-Ke Bang National Park has increased hunting and illegal logging (Nadler et al. 2003). Habitat loss is also a problem in some areas.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species is listed on CITES Appendix II. It is found in Phong Nha-Ke Bang National Park in Viet Nam (Nadler et al. 2003), and small numbers are present as well in Nakai Nam Theun National Biodiversity Conservation Area. A protected area has been proposed in Quang Tri Province, but there is a need for the elimination of poaching of this species. Nadler et al. (2003) outlines the following recommended conservation action for the species in Viet Nam: conduct further field status surveys and reinforcement of conservation in the protected areas network.
There is a need for further survey and taxonomic research to resolve the status of this species relative to T. laotum and T. ebenus, and to determine the current population status of this species with more accuracy.
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Wikipedia

Hatinh langur

The Hatinh langur (Trachypithecus hatinhensis) is a highly threatened Old World monkey found in limestone forests in Vietnam, primarily in the Quảng Bình Province. A recent survey discovered a small population living in the Quảng Trị Province. Contrary to its name, it is not known from the Hà Tĩnh Province. The local Van Kieu minority refer to this lutung as the 'Con Cung', which roughly translates as "black, cliff-dwelling monkey with a long tail".[3] It resembles the closely related François' langur (T. francoisi), but its white cheek-stripes typically extend behind the ears onto the nape (there are significant individual variations, however), and the overall black colour is non-glossy and has a brownish tinge.[4]

This diurnal, largely arboreal langur is social and typically seen in groups of 2-15, but occasionally groups may number as many as 30 individuals.[5] It has often been considered a subspecies of the François' langur, but was elevated to a full species by Bradon-Jones in 1995,[6] and this was followed by Groves, 2005.[1] Both, however, listed it as a subspecies in 2004,[7] and genetic work suggest it should be considered a subspecies of the Laotian langur (T. laotum).[8][9] Morphological and genetic data also suggests the Indochinese black langur (T. ebenus) is a morph of the Hatinh langur.[4][8][9]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Groves, C. P. (2005). Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M, eds. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 177. OCLC 62265494. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 
  2. ^ Xuan Canh, L., Khac Quyet, L., Thanh Hai, D. & Timmins, R. J. (2008). Trachypithecus hatinhensis. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 4 January 2009.
  3. ^ Vietnam survey team finds rare primate. BirdLife International news. Accessed 2008-07-15
  4. ^ a b Nadler, T. (2010). Color variation in Hatinh langurs (Trachypithecus [laotum] hatinhensis). Vietnamese Journal of Primatology 4: 13-18.
  5. ^ Nguyen Manh Ha. 2006. Some Observations on the Hatinh langur, Trachypithecus laotum hatinhensis (Dao, 1970), in North Central Vietnam. Primate Concervation. 21: 149-154. Available online (PDF)
  6. ^ Bradon-Jones, D. 1995. A revision of the Asian pied leaf monkeys (Mammalia: Cercopithecidae: Superspecies Semnopithecus auratus), with the description of a new subspecies. Raffles Bull. Zool. 43: 3-43
  7. ^ Bradon-Jones, D., A. A. Eudey, T. Geissmann, C. P. Groves, D. J. Melnick, J. C. Morales, M. Shekelle, and C. B. Stewart. 2004. Asian primate classification. International Journal of Primatology. 23: 97-164.
  8. ^ a b Roos, C. 2004. Molecular evolution and systematics of Vietnamese primates. In: Nadler, T., U. Streicher, and Ha Thang Long (eds). Conservation of Primates in Vietnam: 23-28.
  9. ^ a b Roos, C., T. Nadler, Y. P. Zhang, H. Zischler. 2001. Molecular evolution and distribution of the superspecies Trachypithecus [francoisi]. Folia Primatol. 72: 181-182.
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Indochinese black langur

The Indochinese black langur (Trachypithecus ebenus) is a poorly known lutung native to Laos and adjacent Vietnam.[2] It was originally described as a subspecies of T. auratus,[3] but was later found to be a member of the T. francoisi group, with some maintaining it as a subspecies of that species.[2] In 2001, it was recommended treating it as a separate species.[1]

Except for its almost entirely black pelage, it resembles the other members of the T. francoisi group. Uniquely in this group, it and the related T. hatinhensis appear to be parapatric,[2] T. ebenus showing what appears to be signs of intergradation with T. hatinhensis are known,[4] and genetically the two barely are separable.[5][6] This has led to suggestions that it may be a black morph of that taxon,[7] which in turn possibly should be considered a subspecies of T. laotum.[5][6] A survey that included 67 T. hatinhensis revealed a high level of variation in the amount of white to the head, and ebenus was maintained as a morph.[8] It was formerly considered data deficient by IUCN, but they now include it in the endangered T. hatinhensis.[9]

References

  1. ^ a b Groves, C. P. (2005). Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. eds. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. OCLC 62265494. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. http://www.bucknell.edu/msw3/browse.asp?id=12100714.
  2. ^ a b c Brandon-Jones, D., Eudey, A. A., Geissmann, T., Groves, C. P., Melnick, D. J., Morales, J. C., Shekelle, M. and Stewart, C.-B (2004). "Asian primate classification". International Journal of Primatology 25 (1): 97–164. doi:10.1023/B:IJOP.0000014647.18720.32.
  3. ^ Bradon-Jones, D (1995). "A revision of the Asian pied leaf monkeys (Mammalia: Cercopithecidae: Superspecies Semnopithecus auratus), with the description of a new subspecies". The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 43: 3–43.
  4. ^ Duckworth, J. W., Salter, R. E., and Khounboline, K. (eds). 1999 Wildlife in Lao P.D.R: 1999 status report. Vientiane: IUCN, WCS and CPAWM.
  5. ^ a b Roos, C. 2004. Molecular evolution and systematics of Vietnamese primates. In: Nadler, T., U. Streicher, and Ha Thang Long (eds). Conservation of Primates in Vietnam: 23-28.
  6. ^ a b Roos, C., T. Nadler, Y. P. Zhang, H. Zischler. 2001. Molecular evolution and distribution of the superspecies Trachypithecus [francoisi]. Folia Primatol. 72: 181-182.
  7. ^ black langur (Trachypithecus ebenus). EPRC. Accessed 2008-07-21
  8. ^ Nadler, T. (2010). Color variation in Hatinh langurs (Trachypithecus [laotum] hatinhensis). Vietnamese Journal of Primatology 4: 13-18.
  9. ^ Xuan Canh, L., Khac Quyet, L., Thanh Hai, D. & Timmins, R.J. (2008). Trachypithecus hatinhensis. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 26 October 2008.
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