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Range DescriptionThe Black-handed Tamarin occurs in the state of ParÃ¡, Brazil, south of the Rio Amazonas, east of the Rio XingÃº and Rio Fresco, to the lower Rio Araguaia, south as far as the region of Santana de Araguaia (Napier 1976; Hershkovitz 1977). Hershkovitz (1977) limited it to the left bank of the Rio GurupÃ, but Johns (1986) censused S. niger in the GurupÃ Forest Reserve on the right bank of the river. It in fact extends to the east of the Rio Mearim, occurring as such in the interfluvium of the rios Mearim and Itapecuru, in the state of MaranhÃ£o, but the exact eastern limit is not known (Ferrari and Lopes 1990, 1996; J. S. Silva Jr. pers. comm, 2008). Callithrix jacchus occurs along the west (left) bank of the Rio ParnaÃba, east of the Rio Itapecuru. The southernmost locality registered by Hershkovitz (1977) is GradaÃºs, Rio Fresco. S. niger also occurs in the western, forested two-thirds of the Island of MarajÃ³ in the Rio Amazonas estuary (Ferrari and Lopes 1996).