Habitat and Ecology
Capuchins are frugivores-insectivores, including a wide variety of fruits, seeds and arthropods, frogs, nestlings and even small mammals, supplemented by stems, flowers and leaves. They are extractive, manipulative foragers (see Izawa 1979; Fernandes 1991). Group sizes range from 6 or 7 to 20, with numbers of females exceeding the numbers of males. Males disperse. Both sexes take up linear hierarchies, the top ranking male being dominant to the top ranking female. Subordinate males are often peripheral (Freese and Oppenmheimer 1981; Fragaszy et al. 2004).
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The black-striped capuchin (Cebus libidinosus), also known as the bearded capuchin, is a capuchin monkey from South America. It was the first non-ape primate where tool usage was documented in the wild, as individuals have been seen cracking nuts by placing them on a stone "anvil" while hitting them with another large stone. Adaptations to carrying large stones and fruit include strengthened back and leg muscles that permit the monkey to walk on its hind legs while carrying stones. The black-striped capuchin has traditionally been considered a subspecies of the tufted capuchin. On the contrary, the southern population here included in C. libidinosus has sometimes been considered another species, Azaras's capuchin (C. cay) (syn. C. paraguayanus).
The black-striped capuchin is found in the Caatinga, Cerrado, and Pantanal of Brazil, and forests and woodlands in Paraguay, far eastern Bolivia and northern Argentina. Some confusion surrounds the taxon juruanus, here included as a subspecies of the black-striped capuchin. It has been considered to occur from the upper Juruá River east and south to Mato Grosso, or alternatively entirely restricted to the region near the upper Juruá River. In the latter case, its range would be surrounded by C. apella, leading to doubts over its true taxonomic status.
- Cebus libidinosus libidinosus
- Cebus libidinosus pallidus
- Cebus libidinosus paraguayanus
- Cebus libidinosus juruanus
In 2011, Jessica Lynch Alfaro et al. proposed that the robust capuchins such (formerly the C. apella group) be placed in a separate genus, Sapajus, from the gracile capuchins (formerly the C. capucinus group), which retain the Cebus genus.
- Groves, C. P. (2005). Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M, eds. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 137. OCLC 62265494. ISBN 0-801-88221-4.
- Rylands, A.B. & Kierulff, M.C.M. (2008). "Cebus libidinosus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 19 January 2012. Database entry includes a brief justification of why this species is of least concern.
- Fragaszy, D., Izar, P., Visalberghi, E., Ottoni, E. B., & Gomes de Oliveira, M. (2004). Wild Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus libidinosus) Use Anvils and Stone Pounding Tools. American Journal of Primatology 64: 359–366.
- "Brazil's Cerrado". Mutant Planet. 2012-08-11. Science Channel.
- Wallace, R.B. (2008). Cebus cay. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 23 November 2008.
- Groves, C. (2001). Primate Taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press. ISBN 1-56098-872-X
- Fragaszy D., Visalberghi E., & Fedigan, L. (2004). The complete capuchin. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-66116-1
- Rylands, A.B., Boubli, J.-P., Mittermeier, R.A. & Wallace, R.B. (2008). Cebus apella. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 23 November 2008.
- Lynch Alfaro, J.W. et al. (2011). "Explosive Pleistocene range expansion leads to widespread Amazonian sympatry between robust and gracile capuchin monkeys". Journal of Biogeography. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2699.2011.02609.x.
- Lynch Alfaro, J.W.; Silva, j. & Rylands, A.B. (2012). "How Different Are Robust and Gracile Capuchin Monkeys? An Argument for the Use of Sapajus and Cebus". American Journal of Primatology: 1–14. doi:10.1002/ajp.222007.
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