Overview

Brief Summary

Change in taxonomy

The species Sapajus libidinosus was previously classified as Cebus libidinosus or Cebus apella libidinosus. Most information regarding S. libidinosus still refer to the species as belonging to genus Cebus.

  • Alfaro, J. W. L., Silva, J. D. S. E., & Rylands, A. B. (2012). How Different Are Robust and Gracile Capuchin Monkeys? An Argument for the Use of Sapajus and Cebus. American Journal of Primatology, 14(November 2011), n/a-n/a. doi:10.1002/ajp.22007
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Distribution

Range Description

Occurs in north-east Brazil in the eastern part of the state of Maranhão, from the basin of the rios Mearim and Itapecuru, through Piaui, Ceará, into Rio Grande do Norte, Pernambuco, Paraíba and Apagoas. It ranges west of the Rio São Francisco, through the Cerrado or bush savanna, in Tocantins, Goiás, western Minas Gerais and part of western Bahia, and north-eastern Mato Grosso, being replaced by C. apella to the north in transition to the Amazon rain forest and the dry forests of Mato Grosso (Silva Jr., 2001). Silva Jr. (2001) indicates that the right (east) bank of the Rio Araguaia may be the westernmost limits to its range ion the north, with C. apella occurring west from the left bank, and further south, at the headwaters, giving way to C. cay. The southern limit is in the region of the Rio Grande in western Minas Gerais (Triângulo Mineiro). C. nigritus occurs to the south of the Rio Grande (Fragaszy et al. 2004, Rylands et al. 2005).
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Dry, deciduous forest open, forest and scrub of the Caatinga of north-east Brazil, gallery forest and dry forests of the cerrado (bush savanna) of Central Brazil.

Capuchins are frugivores-insectivores, including a wide variety of fruits, seeds and arthropods, frogs, nestlings and even small mammals, supplemented by stems, flowers and leaves. They are extractive, manipulative foragers (see Izawa 1979; Fernandes 1991). Group sizes range from 6 or 7 to 20, with numbers of females exceeding the numbers of males. Males disperse. Both sexes take up linear hierarchies, the top ranking male being dominant to the top ranking female. Subordinate males are often peripheral (Freese and Oppenmheimer 1981; Fragaszy et al. 2004).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
Rylands, A.B. & Kierulff, M.C.M.

Reviewer/s
Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)

Contributor/s

Justification
Although the species is currently listed as Least Concern given that it remains widespread, the region in which it occurs is undergoing severe deforestation due to the expanding agricultural frontier (charcoal, soy, etc.) and close monitoring of the population is required.
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Population

Population
There are no population desnity estimates available.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
This species is hunted in many parts of its range, much of which is open savanna grassland or thorny desert scrub. However, it is wide-ranging, and there is no reason to believe that the species is threatened at the present time. The region over which it occurs is undergoing habitat loss due to the expanding agricultural frontier (charcoal, soy, etc.). Some wild individuals are collected for the pet trade.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This is a widespread and adaptable species, which occurs in a number of protected areas where suitable (forest) habitat is available. It is listed on CITES Appendix II.
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Wikipedia

Black-striped capuchin

The black-striped capuchin, Sapajus libidinosus, also known as the bearded capuchin,[2] is a capuchin monkey from South America. It was the first non-ape primate where tool usage was documented in the wild, as individuals have been seen cracking nuts by placing them on a stone "anvil" while hitting them with another large stone.[3] Adaptations to carrying large stones and fruit include strengthened back and leg muscles that permit the monkey to walk on its hind legs while carrying stones.[4] The black-striped capuchin has traditionally been considered a subspecies of the tufted capuchin.[1] On the contrary, the southern population here included in S. libidinosus has sometimes been considered another species, Azaras's capuchin, S. cay (syn. C. paraguayanus).[5]

The black-striped capuchin is found in the Caatinga, Cerrado and Pantanal of Brazil, and forests and woodlands in Paraguay, far eastern Bolivia and northern Argentina.[2][5] Some confusion surrounds the taxon juruanus, here included as a subspecies of the black-striped capuchin.[2] It has been considered to occur from the upper Juruá River east and south to Mato Grosso,[6] or alternatively entirely restricted to the region near the upper Juruá River.[7] In the latter case, its range would be surrounded by C apella, leading to doubts over its true taxonomic status.[8]

Groves (2005) recognizes four subspecies:[1]

In 2011, Jessica Lynch Alfaro et al proposed that the robust capuchins such (formerly the C. apella group) be placed in a separate genus, Sapajus, from the gracile capuchins (formerly the C. capucinus group) which retain the Cebus genus.[9][10]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Groves, C. P. (2005). Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M, eds. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 137. OCLC 62265494. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 
  2. ^ a b c d Rylands, A.B. & Kierulff, M.C.M. (2008). "Cebus libidinosus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 19 January 2012.  Database entry includes a brief justification of why this species is of least concern.
  3. ^ Fragaszy, D., Izar, P., Visalberghi, E., Ottoni, E. B., & Gomes de Oliveira, M. (2004). Wild Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus libidinosus) Use Anvils and Stone Pounding Tools. American Journal of Primatology 64: 359–366.
  4. ^ "Brazil's Cerrado". Mutant Planet. 2012-08-11. Science Channel.
  5. ^ a b Wallace, R.B. (2008). Cebus cay. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 23 November 2008.
  6. ^ Groves, C. (2001). Primate Taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press. ISBN 1-56098-872-X
  7. ^ Fragaszy D., Visalberghi E., & Fedigan, L. (2004). The complete capuchin. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-66116-1
  8. ^ Rylands, A.B., Boubli, J.-P., Mittermeier, R.A. & Wallace, R.B. (2008). Cebus apella. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 23 November 2008.
  9. ^ Lynch Alfaro, J.W. et al (2011). "Explosive Pleistocene range expansion leads to widespread Amazonian sympatry between robust and gracile capuchin monkeys". Journal of Biogeography. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2699.2011.02609.x. 
  10. ^ Lynch Alfaro, J.W.; Silva, j. & Rylands, A.B. (2012). "How Different Are Robust and Gracile Capuchin Monkeys? An Argument for the Use of Sapajus and Cebus". American Journal of Primatology: 1–14. doi:10.1002/ajp.222007. 
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