Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Trees, shrubs or herbs (Dorstenia only), dioecious or monoecious; sap milky, very occasionally watery (e.g. in Ficus capreifolia). Stipules present. Leaves alternate, rarely subopposite or subwhorled. Inflorescence unisexual or bisexual. Male flowers: tepals 2-6 perianth 0; stamens 1-4. Female flowers: tepals 2-6 perianth 0; pistil 1; stigmas 1 or 2.
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© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

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Ecology

Associations

Foodplant / pathogen
Fusarium anamorph of Gibberella baccata infects and damages live, cankered shoot (young) of Moraceae
Remarks: season: summer

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Evolution and Systematics

Functional Adaptations

Functional adaptation

Metabolites make wood durable: Bagassa guianensis tree
 

Tissues of the Bagassa guianensis tree increase its durability due to the presence of metabolites called stilbenoids.

       
  "In order to explain the durability of the Moraceae plant family, phytochemistry of Bagassa guianensis was performed...18 secondary metabolites were isolated, including...8 stilbenoids...Previous studies suggest that stilbenoids are responsible for the natural durability of wood." (Royer et al. 2010: 1708)

"Stilbenes are known as fungicides, termicides and bactericides (Hart and Shrimpton, 1979; Likhitwitayawuid and Sritularak, 2001; Jayasinghe et al., 2004) and may also exhibit antioxidant properties." (Royer et al. 2010: 1711)
  Learn more about this functional adaptation.
  • Royer M; Herbette G; Eparvier V; Beauchêne J; Thibaut B; Stien D. 2010. Secondary metabolites of Bagassa guianensis Aubl. wood: A study of the chemotaxonomy of the Moraceae family. Phytochemistry. 71: 1708–1713.
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© The Biomimicry Institute

Source: AskNature

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
                                        
Specimen Records:2,057Public Records:975
Specimens with Sequences:1,726Public Species:224
Specimens with Barcodes:1,667Public BINs:0
Species:393         
Species With Barcodes:359         
          
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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Barcode data

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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Locations of barcode samples

Collection Sites: world map showing specimen collection locations for Moraceae

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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Wikipedia

Moraceae

The Moraceae — often called the mulberry family or fig family — are a family of flowering plants comprising about 40 genera and over 1000 species. Most are widespread in tropical and subtropical regions, less so in temperate climates. The only synapomorphy within Moraceae is presence of laticifers and milky sap in all parenchymatous tissues, but generally useful field characters include two carpels sometimes with one reduced, compound inconspicuous flowers, and compound fruits.[2] Included are well-known plants such as the fig, banyan, breadfruit, mulberry, and Osage-orange. The 'flowers' of Moraceae are often pseudanthia (reduced inflorescences).

Classification[edit]

Formerly included within the now defunct order Urticales, recent molecular studies have resulted in its placement within Rosales in a clade called the urticalean rosids that also includes Ulmaceae, Celtidaceae, Cannabaceae and Urticaceae. Cecropia, which has variously been placed in Moraceae, Urticaceae, or their own family, Cecropiaceae, is now included in Urticaceae.[3]

Moraceae dioecy apparently evolved from monoecy as dioecy appears to be the primitive state in Moraceae. Monoecy evolved independently at least four times.[4]

Genera[edit]

The five tribes of Moraceae are: Artocarpeae;[5] Castilleae;[6] Dorstenieae;[7] Ficeae;[8] and Moreae.[9] Aside from Ficaea, which only has one genus (Ficus L.), all of the others have at least seven genera, here listed below.[10]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III" (PDF). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x. Retrieved 2013-07-06. 
  2. ^ Judd et al. (2008)
  3. ^ Sytsma et al. (2002)
  4. ^ Datwyler and Weiblen (2004)
  5. ^ GRIN. "Genera in GRIN for tribe Artocarpeae". Retrieved November 26, 2012. 
  6. ^ GRIN. "Genera in GRIN for tribe Castilleae". Retrieved November 26, 2012. 
  7. ^ GRIN. "Genera in GRIN for tribe Dorstenieae". Retrieved November 26, 2012. 
  8. ^ GRIN. "Genera in GRIN for tribe Ficeae". Retrieved November 26, 2012. 
  9. ^ GRIN. "Genera in GRIN for tribe Moreae". Retrieved November 26, 2012. 
  10. ^ GRIN. "Genera in GRIN for family Moraceae". Taxonomy for Plants. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland: USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Retrieved November 26, 2012. 

References[edit]

  • Datwyler, Shannon L. & Weiblen, George D. (2004): On the origin of the fig:Phylogenetic relationships of Moraceae from ndhF sequences. American Journal of Botany 91(5): 767-777. PDF fulltext
  • Judd, Walter S.; Campbell, Christopher S.; Kellogg, Elizabeth A.; Stevens, Peter F. & Donoghue, Michael J. (2008): Plant Systematics: A Phylogenetic Approach. Sinauer Associates, Inc. Sunderland, MA.
  • Sytsma, Kenneth J.; Morawetz, Jeffery; Pires, J. Chris; Nepokroeff, Molly; Conti, Elena; Zjhra, Michelle; Hall, Jocelyn C. & Chase, Mark W. (2002): Urticalean rosids: Circumscription, rosid ancestry, and phylogenetics based on rbcL, trnL-F, and ndhF sequences. American Journal of Botany 89(9): 1531-1546. PDF fulltext
  • Zerega, Nyree J. C.; Clement, Wendy L.; Datwyler, Shannon L. & Weiblen, George D. (2005): Biogroegraphy and divergence times in the mulberry family (Moraceae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 37(2): 402-416. doi|10.1016/j.ympev.2005.07.004 PDF fulltext
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