Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Erect, annual, aromatic herb (in ours). Latex 0. Stipules present. Leaves alternate or opposite, digitately 3-7(-11)-foliolate (in ours), the leaflets with a serrate margin. Plant dioecious. Male inflorescences laxly cymose-paniculate; perianth 5-lobed, 1-seriate. Female inflorescences short, compact; flowers subtended by a bract and an enveloping bracteole. Ovary superior. Fruit an achene.
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© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

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Distribution

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Cannabaceae Martinov:
Colombia (South America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., R. D. C. Ortiz, R. Callejas Posada & M. Merello. 2011. Flora de Antioquia. Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares, vol. 2. Listado de las Plantas Vasculares del Departamento de Antioquia. Pp. 1-939.   http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/100008595 External link.
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© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
                                        
Specimen Records:352Public Records:107
Specimens with Sequences:253Public Species:28
Specimens with Barcodes:250Public BINs:0
Species:60         
Species With Barcodes:45         
          
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Barcode data

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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Locations of barcode samples

Collection Sites: world map showing specimen collection locations for Cannabaceae

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Wikipedia

Cannabaceae

Cannabaceae is a small family of flowering plants. As now circumscribed, the family includes about 170 species grouped in about 11 genera, including Cannabis (hemp), Humulus (hops) and Celtis (hackberries). Celtis is by far the largest genus, containing about 100 species.[1]

Other than a shared evolutionary origin (see Phylogeny below), members of the family have few common characteristics; some are trees (e.g. Celtis), others are herbaceous plants (e.g. Cannabis).

Description[edit]

Members of this family can be trees (e.g. Celtis), erect herbs (e.g. Cannabis), or twining herbs (e.g. Humulus).

Leaves are often more or less palmately lobed or palmately compound and always bear stipules. Cystoliths are always present and some members of this family possess laticifers.

Cannabaceae are often dioecious (distinct male and female plants). The flowers are actinomorphic (radially symmetrical) and not showy, as these plants are pollinated by the wind. As an adaptation to this kind of pollination, the calyx is short and there is no corolla. Flowers are grouped to form cymes. In the dioecious plants the masculine inflorescences are long and look like panicles, while the feminine are shorter and bear less flowers. The pistil is made of two connate carpels, the usually superior ovary is unilocular; there is no fixed number of stamens.

The fruit can be an achene, drupe or a small nut.

Phylogeny[edit]

Classification systems developed prior to the 1990s, such as those of Cronquist (1981) and Dahlgren (1989), typically recognized the order Urticales, which included the families Cannabaceae, Cecropiaceae, Celtidaceae, Moraceae, Ulmaceae and Urticaceae, as then circumscribed. Molecular data from 1990s onwards showed that these families were actually embedded within the order Rosales, so that from the first classification by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group in 1998, they were placed in an expanded Rosales, forming a group which has been called "urticalean rosids".[2]

A molecular phylogenetic study in 2002 produced the consensus tree shown below. This showed that the family Celtidaceae was paraphyletic if the Cannabaceae, as then circumscribed, were removed. Accordingly a single larger family was required, combining the two existing families. Under the rules of the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, the oldest family name must be used: this is Cannabaceae.[2]

urticalean rosids

Ulmaceae



Cannabaceae s.l.

 Aphananthe 




 Lozanella 




 Parasponia 




 Pteroceltis 




 Cannabis 



 Humulus 









Urticaceae sensu lato



Moraceae





List of genera[edit]

Hops (Humulus lupulus) with nearly mature fruits

The following genera are listed by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website, as of October 2011:[3]

Uses[edit]

Carbon dating has revealed that these plants may have been used for ritual/medicinal purposes in Xinjiang, China as early as 494 B.C.[4]

Hop (Humulus lupulus) is cultivated for its flowers which contain aromatic substances used in the production of beer. Its young shoots are used as vegetable. Different subspecies of hemp (Cannabis sativa) are cultivated for the production of fiber, as a source of cheap oil, for the nutritious seeds, or to produce recreational, sacramental, or medical cannabis.

Both hops and cannabis contain antimicrobial substances. This is why hops extract is used in natural deodorants.[5][not in citation given] Cannabinoids in cannabis are effective at killing MRSA, a drug-resistant bacteria.[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Stevens, P.F. (2001 onwards), Angiosperm Phylogeny Website : Cannabaceae 
  2. ^ a b c Sytsma, Kenneth J.; Morawetz, Jeffery; Pires, J. Chris; Nepokroeff, Molly; Conti, Elena; Zjhra, Michelle; Hall, Jocelyn C. & Chase, Mark W. (2002), "Urticalean rosids: circumscription, rosid ancestry, and phylogenetics based on rbcL, trnL-F, and ndhF sequences", American Journal of Botany 89 (9): 1531–1546, doi:10.3732/ajb.89.9.1531, PMID 21665755 
  3. ^ Stevens, P.F. (2001 onwards), Angiosperm Phylogeny Website : Cannabaceae Genera 
  4. ^ Jiang, Hong-En; Xiao Li, You-Xing Zhao, David K. Ferguson, Francis Hueber, Subir Bera, Yu-Fei Wang, Liang-Cheng Zhao, Chang-Jiang Liu, Cheng-Sin Li (December 2006). "A new insight into Cannabis sativa (Cannabaceae) utilization from 2500-year-old Yanghai Tombs, Xinjiang, China". Journal of Ethnopharmacology 108 (3): 414–422. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2006.05.034. Retrieved 8 June 2012. 
  5. ^ "Hops [CO2] Extract". Toms of Maine. Retrieved 2009-06-06. 
  6. ^ Appendino, Giovanni; Simon Gibbons, Anna Giana, Alberto Pagani, Gianpaolo Grassi, Michael Stavri, Eileen Smith and M. Mukhlesur Rahman (6 August 2008). "Antibacterial cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: a structure−activity study" (PDF). Journal of Natural Products 71 (8): 1427–1430. doi:10.1021/np8002673. PMID 18681481. 
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