Magnolia (magnolia) is a genus of about 80–210 (depending on the classification system) species of trees and shrubs in the Magnoliaceae (magnolia family), native to eastern and central Asia (including the Himalayas) and North and Central America. The genus is characterized by large, showy flowers, and often with evergreen or semi-evergreen leaves.
Magnolia is one of the most ancient angiosperm (flowering plant) genera, with fossil specimens dated at 20 million years old, and fossils of plants belonging to the Magnoliaceae family dating to 95 million years ago. The genus appears to have evolved before bees appeared, so the floral structure developed to encourage pollination by beetles, as described in this video on the southern magnolia, M. grandiflora (see YouTube clip).
Magnolias have large, aromatic flowers, usually bisexual (perfect), with 3 sepals and 6–12 petals (sepals and petals are not clearly differentiated, so are called tepals), with many stamens in a spiral. Flowers may be white, cream, yellow, pink, or purple. Flowers, borne on branch tips, have numerous simple ovaries in the center, which form a cone-like fruit with seeds (usually red) hanging from the center by slender stems. Leaves are alternate and entire (smooth-margined), and are tough, leathery, and evergreen in some species, but thin and deciduous in others. Leaves are quite large in some species, and are generally considered attractive, but lack fall color.
Eight species of Magnolia are native to the southeastern U.S., where they have become a popular symbol of southern culture, used in myriad place names and in literature, music (including magnolia-titled songs by the Grateful Dead, Beck, and JJ Cale), movies, and art. Magnolia is the state tree of Mississippi, and M. grandiflora (southern magnolia or sweet bay) is the state flower of both Mississippi and Louisiana.
Many magnolias are cultivated as garden ornamentals, and numerous cultivars and hybrids of North American and Asian species have been developed. Gardeners consider magnolia flowers to be of unsurpassed magnificence among temperate species—M. grandiflora has the largest flower of any North American species. In addition to their horticultural uses, a few magnolia species are used locally as timber sources, including M. acuminata, M. grandiflora, and M. virginiana in the southeastern U.S.
Popular North American species for garden use include M. grandiflora (laurel, southern magnolia, or sweet bay; M. virginiana (sweet bay); M. macrophylla (big-leaf magnolia); M. tripetala (umbrella tree); and M. acuminata (cucumber tree). Hybrids include Thompson’s magnolia (M. tripetala X virginiana).
Popular Asian species include M. liliflora or M. quinquipeta (lily magnolia); M. denudata and M. heptapeta (yulan magnolia); M. X soulangeana (saucer magnolia, a hybrid between lily and yulan magnolias); M. sieboldii (Oyama magnolia, the national tree of North Korea); and M. stellata (star magnolia). These Asian species range from small shrubs to tall trees, with flower colors ranging from white to pink to crimson to purple, and fruits with diverse colors.
Magnolias (in particular M. officials) have been used for medicinal purposes in China, for a tonic to treat neurosis and gastrointestinal disorders. Documents dating to 1083 record these uses, and extensive cutting of trees to make the tonic has led to declines of wild magnolia populations.
(Encyclopedia Britannica 1993, Everett 1981, Wikipedia 2011)
- Callaway, D.J. 1994. The World of Magnolias. Portland, OR: Timber Press. 260 p/
- Encylopedia Britannica. 1993. “Magnolia.” Micropedia 7: 687. Chicago: Encyclopedia Brittanica, Inc.
- Everett, T.H. 1981. “Magnolia.” The New York Botanical Garden Illustrated Encyclopedia of Horticulture 6: 2096–2012.
- Wikipedia. 2011. "Magnolia." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Accessed 19 December 2011 from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Magnolia&oldid=466609637.
Foodplant / pathogen
Armillaria mellea s.l. infects and damages Magnolia
Plant / epiphyte
epiphyllous thallus of Cephaleuros grows on live leaf of Magnolia
Foodplant / pathogen
Cucumber Mosaic virus infects and damages mottled or patterned leaf of Magnolia
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Foodplant / pathogen
Tubercularia anamorph of Nectria cinnabarina infects and damages branch of Magnolia
Remarks: season: 1-12
Foodplant / sap sucker
Parthenolecanium corni sucks sap of live shoot of Magnolia
Foodplant / sap sucker
hypophyllous Pulvinaria floccifera sucks sap of live leaf of Magnolia
Foodplant / sap sucker
Pulvinaria regalis sucks sap of live branch of Magnolia
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Statistics of barcoding coverage
Specimens with Sequences:315
Specimens with Barcodes:243
Species With Barcodes:70
Statistics of barcoding coverage
Specimens with Sequences:24
Specimens with Barcodes:24
Species With Barcodes:2
Magnolia is an ancient genus. Appearing before bees did, the flowers are theorized to have evolved to encourage pollination by beetles. To avoid damage from pollinating beetles, the carpels of Magnolia flowers are extremely tough. Fossilised specimens of M. acuminata have been found dating to 20 million years ago, and of plants identifiably belonging to the Magnoliaceae date to 95 million years ago. Another aspect of Magnolia considered to represent an ancestral state is the flower bud is enclosed in a bract rather than in sepals; the perianth parts are undifferentiated and called tepals rather than distinct sepals and petals. Magnolia shares the tepal characteristic with several other flowering plants near the base of the flowering plant lineage such as Amborella and Nymphaea (as well as with many more recently derived plants such as Lilium).
The natural range of Magnolia species is a disjunct distribution, with a main centre in east and southeast Asia and a secondary centre in eastern North America, Central America, the West Indies, and some species in South America.
- 1 Origin of the name Magnolia
- 2 Nomenclature and classification
- 3 Selected species
- 3.1 Subgenus Magnolia
- 3.1.1 Section Magnolia
- 3.1.2 Section Gwillimia
- 3.1.3 Section Talauma
- 3.1.4 Section Manglietia
- 3.1.5 Section Kmeria
- 3.1.6 Section Rhytidospermum
- 3.1.7 Section Auriculata
- 3.1.8 Section Macrophylla
- 3.2 Subgenus Yulania
- 3.3 Subgenus Gynopodium
- 3.1 Subgenus Magnolia
- 4 Uses
- 5 Chemical compounds and bioeffects
- 6 Popular culture
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Origin of the name Magnolia
In 1703, Charles Plumier (1646–1704) described a flowering tree from the island of Martinique in his Genera. He gave the species, known locally as talauma, the genus name Magnolia, after Pierre Magnol. English botanist William Sherard, who studied botany in Paris under Joseph Pitton de Tournefort, a pupil of Magnol, was most probably the first after Plumier to adopt the genus name Magnolia. He was at least responsible for the taxonomic part of Johann Jacob Dillenius's Hortus Elthamensis and of Mark Catesby's Natural History of Carolina, Florida and the Bahama Islands. These were the first works after Plumier's Genera that used the name Magnolia, this time for some species of flowering trees from temperate North America. Carolus Linnaeus, who was familiar with Plumier's Genera, adopted the genus name Magnolia in 1735 in his first edition of Systema Naturae, without a description, but with a reference to Plumier's work. In 1753, he took up Plumier's Magnolia in the first edition of Species Plantarum. Since Linnaeus never saw an herbarium specimen (if there ever was one) of Plumier's Magnolia and had only his description and a rather poor picture at hand, he must have taken it for the same plant which was described by Catesby in his 1730 Natural History of Carolina. He placed it in the synonymy of Magnolia virginiana var. fœtida, the taxon now known as Magnolia grandiflora.
The species that Plumier originally named Magnolia was later described as Annona dodecapetala by Lamarck, and has since been named Magnolia plumieri and Talauma plumieri (and still a number of other names) but is now known as Magnolia dodecapetala.
Nomenclature and classification
When Linnaeus took up Magnolia in his Species plantarum (1753), he created a genus of only one species: Magnolia virginiana. Under that species, he described five varieties (glauca, fœtida, grisea, tripetala, and acuminata). In the tenth edition of Systema Naturae (1759), he merged grisea with glauca, and raised the four remaining varieties to species status.
By the end of the 18th century, botanists and plant hunters exploring Asia began to name and describe the Magnolia species from China and Japan. The first Asiatic species to be described by western botanists were Magnolia denudata and Magnolia liliiflora, and Magnolia coco and Magnolia figo. Soon after that, in 1794, Carl Peter Thunberg collected and described Magnolia obovata from Japan and at roughly the same time Magnolia kobus was also first collected.
With the number of species increasing, the genus was divided into the two subgenera Magnolia and Yulania. Magnolia contains the American evergreen species M. grandiflora, which is of horticultural importance, especially in the southeastern United States, and M. virginiana, the type species. Yulania contains several deciduous Asiatic species, such as M. denudata and M. kobus, which have become horticulturally important in their own right and as parents in hybrids. Classified in Yulania, is also the American deciduous M. acuminata (cucumber tree), which has recently attained greater status as the parent responsible for the yellow flower colour in many new hybrids.
Relations in the family Magnoliaceae have been puzzling taxonomists for a long time. Because the family is quite old and has survived many geological events (such as ice ages, mountain formation, and continental drift), its distribution has become scattered. Some species or groups of species have been isolated for a long time, while others could stay in close contact. To create divisions in the family (or even within the genus Magnolia), solely based upon morphological characters, has proven to be a nearly impossible task.
By the end of the 20th century, DNA sequencing had become available as a method of large-scale research on phylogenetic relationships. Several studies, including studies on many species in the family Magnoliaceae, were carried out to investigate relationships. What these studies all revealed was that genus Michelia and Magnolia subgenus Yulania were far more closely allied to each other than either one of them was to Magnolia subgenus Magnolia. These phylogenetic studies were supported by morphological data.
As nomenclature is supposed to reflect relationships, the situation with the species names in Michelia and Magnolia subgenus Yulania was undesirable. Taxonomically, three choices are available: 1 to join Michelia and Yulania species in a common genus, not being Magnolia (for which the name Michelia has priority), 2 to raise subgenus Yulania to generic rank, leaving Michelia names and subgenus Magnolia names untouched, or 3 to join Michelia with genus Magnolia into genus Magnolia s.l. (a big genus). Magnolia subgenus Magnolia cannot be renamed because it contains M. virginiana, the type species of the genus and of the family. Not many Michelia species have so far become horticulturally or economically important, apart for their wood. Both subgenus Magnolia and subgenus Yulania include species of major horticultural importance, and a change of name would be very undesirable for many people, especially in the horticultural branch. In Europe, Magnolia even is more or less a synonym for Yulania, since most of the cultivated species on this continent have Magnolia (Yulania) denudata as one of their parents. Most taxonomists who acknowledge close relations between Yulania and Michelia therefore support the third option and join Michelia with Magnolia.
The same goes, mutatis mutandis, for the (former) genera Talauma and Dugandiodendron, which are then placed in subgenus Magnolia, and genus Manglietia, which could be joined with subgenus Magnolia or may even earn the status of an extra subgenus. Elmerrillia seems to be closely related to Michelia and Yulania, in which case it will most likely be treated in the same way as Michelia is now. The precise nomenclatural status of small or monospecific genera like Kmeria, Parakmeria, Pachylarnax, Manglietiastrum, Aromadendron, Woonyoungia, Alcimandra, Paramichelia and Tsoongiodendron remains uncertain. Taxonomists who merge Michelia into Magnolia tend to merge these small genera into Magnolia s.l. as well. Botanists do not yet agree on whether to recognize a big Magnolia genus or the different small genera. For example, Flora of China offers two choices: a large Magnolia which includes about 300 species, everything in the Magnoliaceae except Liriodendron (tulip tree), or 16 different genera, some of them recently split out or re-recognized, each of which contains up to 50 species. The western co-author favors the big Magnolia genus, whereas the Chinese co-authors recognize the different small genera.
This nearly comprehensive species list has been adapted from the one used by the Magnolia Society. It does not represent the last word on the subclassification of the genus Magnolia (see above), as a clear consensus has not yet been reached.
Each species entry follows this pattern:
Botanical name Naming auth. - common name(s), if any (REGION FOUND)
- Magnolia grandiflora L. - southern magnolia or bull bay (SE US)
- Magnolia guatemalensis Donn. Sm. - Guatemalan magnolia or Mamey (GUATEMALA, HONDURAS, EL SALVADOR)
- Magnolia guatemalensis ssp. guatemalensis Guatemalan magnolia or Mamey (GUATEMALA)
- Magnolia guatemalensis ssp. hondurensis (Molina) Vazquez Honduran magnolia (HONDURAS, EL SALVADOR)
- Magnolia iltisiana Vazquez (W MEXICO)
- Magnolia pacifica Vazquez (W MEXICO)
- Magnolia pacifica ssp. pacifica (W MEXICO)
- Magnolia pacifica ssp. pugana Iltis & Vazquez (W MEXICO)
- Magnolia pacifica ssp. tarahumara Vazquez (W MEXICO)
- Magnolia panamensis Vazquez & Iltis (PANAMA)
- Magnolia poasana (Pittier) Dandy - Poas magnolia (COSTA RICA, PANAMA)
- Magnolia schiedeana Schltdl. (E MEXICO)
- Magnolia sharpii Meranda - Sharp's magnolia (CHIAPAS MEXICO)
- Magnolia sororum Seibert - Sister magnolia (COSTA RICA, PANAMA)
- Magnolia sororum ssp. lutea Vazquez . (COSTA RICA, PANAMA)
- Magnolia sororum ssp. sororum (PANAMA)
- Magnolia tamaulipana Vazquez - Mexican evergreen magnolia (NE MEXICO)
- Magnolia virginiana Linn - sweetbay magnolia, sweet magnolia, sweet bay, swamp bay, swamp magnolia, swamp laurel, laurel magnolia, white bay, or beaver tree (SOUTHEAST US)
- Magnolia yoroconte Dandy - Yoroconte magnolia (HONDURAS)
- Magnolia albosericea Chun & Tsoong. . (HAINAN IS.)
- Magnolia championii Benth - Champion's magnolia (S & SE CHINA)
- Magnolia coco (Lour.) DC. - Coconut magnolia (SE CHINA)
- Magnolia delavayi Franchet - Chinese evergreen magnolia or Delavay's magnolia (YUNNAN (CHINA))
- Magnolia fistulosa (Finet & Gagnep.) Dandy (SE YUNNAN (CHINA))
- Magnolia henryi Dunn - Henry's magnolia (YUNNAN (CHINA))
- Magnolia nana Dandy - Dwarf magnolia (VIETNAM)
- Magnolia odoratissima Law et Zhou (S CHINA)
- Magnolia pterocarpa Roxb. (NEPAL, BURMA)
- Magnolia gigantifolia (Miq.) Noot. (BORNEO, SUMATRA)
- Magnolia hodgsonii (Hook.f. & Thom.) H.Keng - gai lie mu (NEPAL, BURMA)
- Magnolia lasia Noot. (BORNEO)
- Magnolia liliifera (L.) Baillon - egg magnolia (SE ASIA, BORNEO, PHILIPPINES, SINGAPORE, SUMATRA)
- Magnolia liliifera var. angatensis (Blanco) Noot. (PHILIPPINES)
- Magnolia liliifera var. beccarii (Ridley) Noot. (BORNEO)
- Magnolia liliifera var. liliifera (SE ASIA)
- Magnolia liliifera var. obovata (Korth.) Govaerts (BORNEO)
- Magnolia liliifera var. singapurensis (Ridley) Noot. (SINGAPORE, SUMATRA)
- Magnolia mariusjacobsia Noot. (BORNEO)
- Magnolia persuaveolens Dandy - fragrant magnolia (BORNEO)
- Magnolia persuaveolens ssp. persuaveolens (BORNEO)
- Magnolia persuaveolens ssp. rigida Noot. (BORNEO)
- Magnolia sarawakensis (Agostini) Noot. (BORNEO)
- Magnolia villosa (Miq.) H.Keng (SUMATRA, BORNEO)
- Magnolia allenii Standl. (PANAMA)
- Magnolia amazonica (Ducke) Govaerts (BRAZIL, PERU)
- Magnolia arcabucoana (Lozano) Govaerts (COLOMBIA)
- Magnolia bankardiorum M.O.Dillon & Sánchez Vega (PERU)
- Magnolia boliviana (M.Nee) Govaerts (BOLIVIA)
- Magnolia caricifragrans (Lozano) Govaerts (COLOMBIA)
- Magnolia cespedesii (Triana & Planch) Govaerts (COLOMBIA)
- Magnolia chocoensis (Lozano) Govaerts . (COLOMBIA)
- Magnolia dixonii (Little) Govaerts (ECUADOR)
- Magnolia dodecapetala (Lam.) Govaerts (LESSER ANTILLES)
- Magnolia espinalii (Lozano) Govaerts (COLOMBIA)
- Magnolia georgii (Lozano) Govaerts (COLOMBIA)
- Magnolia gilbertoi (Lozano) Govaerts (COLOMBIA)
- Magnolia gloriensis (Pittier) Govaerts (CENTRAL AMERICA)
- Magnolia hernandezii (Lozano) Govaerts (COLOMBIA)
- Magnolia irwiniana (Lozano) Govaerts (BRAZIL)
- Magnolia jardinensis (COLOMBIA)
- Magnolia katiorum (Lozano) Govaerts . (COLOMBIA)
- Magnolia lacandonica Vazquez-Garcia, Perez-Farrera, Martinez-Camilo, Muniz-Castro & Martinez-Melendez (MEXICO)
- Magnolia manguillo Marcelo-Peña & F. Arroyo (PERU)
- Magnolia mexicana DC. (MEXICO)
- Magnolia minor (Urb.) Govaerts (CUBA)
- Magnolia morii (Lozano) Govaerts (PANAMA)
- Magnolia narinensis (Lozano) Govaerts (COLOMBIA)
- Magnolia neillii (Lozano) Govaerts (ECUADOR)
- Magnolia ovata (A.St.-Hil.) Spreng. (BRAZIL)
- Magnolia polyhypsophylla (Lozano) Govaerts (COLOMBIA)
- Magnolia quetzel Vazquez-Garcia, Veliz-Perez, Triboullier-Navas & Muniz-Castro (GUATEMALA)
- Magnolia rimachii (Lozano) Govaerts (PERU, ECUADOR)
- Magnolia sambuensis (Pittier) Govaerts (PANAMA, COLOMBIA)
- Magnolia santanderiana (Lozano) Govaerts (COLOMBIA)
- Magnolia sellowiana (A.St.-Hil.) Govaerts (BRAZIL)
- Magnolia silvioi (Lozano) Govaerts (COLOMBIA)
- Magnolia venezuelensis (Lozano) Govaerts (VENEZUELA)
- Magnolia virolinensis (Lozano) Govaerts (COLOMBIA)
- Magnolia wolfii (Lozano) Govaerts (COLOMBIA)
- Magnolia argyrothricha (Lozano) Govaerts (COLOMBIA)
- Magnolia calimaensis (Lozano) Govaerts (COLOMBIA)
- Magnolia calophylla (Lozano) Govaerts (COLOMBIA)
- Magnolia cararensis (Lozano) Govaerts (COLOMBIA)
- Magnolia chimantensis Steyermark & Maguire - Chimanta magnolia (VENEZUELA)
- Magnolia colombiana (Little) Govaerts (COLOMBIA)
- Magnolia guatapensis (Lozano) Govaerts (COLOMBIA)
- Magnolia jaenensis Marcelo-Peña (PERU)
- Magnolia lenticellata (Lozano) Govaerts (COLOMBIA)
- Magnolia magnifolia (Lozano) Govaerts (COLOMBIA)
- Magnolia mahechae (Lozano) Govaerts (COLOMBIA)
- Magnolia ptaritepuiana Steyermark - ptari-tepui magnolia (VENEZUELA)
- Magnolia striatifolia Little (COLOMBIA, ECUADOR)
- Magnolia urraoense (Lozano) Govaerts (COLOMBIA)
- Magnolia yarumalense (Lozano) Govaerts (COLOMBIA)
- Magnolia cacuminoides Bisse (CUBA)
- Magnolia cristalensis Bisse (CUBA)
- Magnolia cubensis Urb. - Cuban magnolia (CUBA)
- Magnolia domingensis Urb. - Dominican magnolia (HAITI)
- Magnolia ekmannii Urb. (HAITI)
- Magnolia emarginata Urb. & Ekman - small-notched magnolia (HAITI)
- Magnolia hamorii Howard - Hamor's magnolia (DOM. REP.)
- Magnolia pallescens Urb. & Ekman - pale magnolia (DOM. REP.)
- Magnolia portoricensis Bello - Puerto Rico magnolia (PUERTO RICO)
- Magnolia splendens Urban - shining magnolia or laurel magnolia (PUERTO RICO)
- Magnolia aromatica (Dandy) V.S.Kumar (S CHINA)
- Magnolia blaoensis (Gagnep.) Dandy (VIETNAM)
- Magnolia blumei Prantl (SUMATRA, JAVA)
- Magnolia blumei var. blumei (SUMATRA, JAVA)
- Magnolia blumei var. sumatrana (Miq.) Figlar & Noot. (W SUMATRA)
- Magnolia calophylloides Figlar & Noot. (W SUMATRA)
- Magnolia caveana (Hook.f. & Thoms.) D.C.Raju & M.P.Nayer (ASSAM, N BURMA)
- Magnolia chevalieri (Dandy) V.S.Kumar (VIETNAM, LAOS)
- Magnolia conifera (Dandy) V.S.Kumar (SE CHINA, VIETNAM)
- Magnolia conifera var. chingii (Dandy) V.S.Kumar (SE CHINA)
- Magnolia conifera var. conifera (SE CHINA, VIETNAM)
- Magnolia crassipes (Y.W.Law) V.S.Kumar (GUANGDONG (CHINA))
- Magnolia dandyi (Gapnep.) Dandy (S CHINA, VIETNAM, LAOS)
- Magnolia decidua (Q.Y.Zheng) V.S.Kumar (JIANGXI (CHINA))
- Magnolia dolichogyna (Dandy ex Noot.) Figlar & Noot. (BORNEO, MALAY PENIN.)
- Magnolia duclouxii Finet & Gagnep. (VIETNAM, SW CHINA)
- Magnolia figlarii V.S.Kumar (SICHUAN (CHINA))
- Magnolia fordiana (Oliv.) Hu (VIETNAM, S CHINA)
- Magnolia fordiana var. calcarea (X.H.Song) Chen & Noot. (GUIZHOU (CHINA))
- Magnolia fordiana var. fordiana (VIETNAM, S CHINA)
- Magnolia fordiana var. forrestii (W.W.Sm. Ex Dandy) Chen & Noot. (SW CHINA)
- Magnolia fordiana var. kwangtungensis (Merr.) Chen & Noot. (SE CHINA)
- Magnolia garrettii (Craib) V.S.Kumar (SW CHINA, VIETNAM, THAILAND)
- Magnolia grandis (Hu & W.C.Cheng) V.S.Kumar (YUNNAN (CHINA))
- Magnolia hookeri Cubitt & W.W.Sm. (SW CHINA, N BURMA, THAILAND)
- Magnolia insignis (Wall.) Blume (S CHINA, NEPAL, BURMA)
- Magnolia lanuginosoides Figlar & Noot. (SUMATRA)
- Magnolia lucida (B.L.Chen & S.C.Yang) V.S.Kumar (SW CHINA)
- Magnolia megaphylla (Hu & W.C.Cheng) V.S.Kumar (YUNNAN (CHINA))
- Magnolia moto (Dandy) V.S.Kumar (SE CHINA)
- Magnolia obovalifolia (C.Y.Yu & Law) V.S.Kumar (YUNNAN (CHINA))
- Magnolia ovoidea (H.T.Chang & B.L.Chen) V.S.Kumar (YUNNAN (CHINA))
- Magnolia phuthoensis (Dandy ex Gapnep.) V.S.Kumar (VIETNAM)
- Magnolia rufibarbata (Dandy) V.S.Kumar (VIETNAM)
- Magnolia sabahensis (Dandy ex Noot.) Figlar & Noot. (BORNEO)
- Magnolia tibetica V.S.Kumar (TIBET)
- Magnolia utilis (Dandy) V.S.Kumar (N BURMA, THAILAND)
- Magnolia ventii (N.V.Tiep) V.S.Kumar (YUNNAN (CHINA))
- Magnolia yuyuanensis (Y.W.Law) V.S.Kumar (E CHINA)
- Magnolia duperreana Pierre (VIETNAM, CAMBODIA)
- Magnolia kwangsiensis Figlar & Noot. (YUNNAN, GUANGXI (CHINA))
- Magnolia thailandica Noot. & Chalermglin (THAILAND)
- Magnolia obovata Thunb. - Japanese bigleaf magnolia or Japanese whitebark magnolia (JAPAN)
- Magnolia officinalis Rehd. & Wilson - houpu magnolia or magnolia-bark (W CHINA)
- Magnolia officinalis ssp. biloba Cheng & Law - aoyehoupo magnolia (E CHINA)
- Magnolia officinalis ssp. officinalis - houpu magnolia or magnolia-bark (E CHINA)
- Magnolia rostrata W.W.Smith - beaked magnolia (SW CHINA)
- Magnolia tripetala (L.) L. - umbrella magnolia or umbrella-tree (SE US)
- Magnolia globosa Hook.f. & Thoms. - globe magnolia or Hen magnolia (NEPAL, BURMA)
- Magnolia sieboldii K.Koch - Siebold's magnolia or oyama magnolia (KOREA, E CHINA)
- Magnolia sieboldii ssp. japonica K.Ueda (JAPAN, CENTRAL CHINA)
- Magnolia sieboldii ssp. sieboldii Siebold's magnolia or oyama magnolia (JAPAN)
- Magnolia sieboldii ssp. sinensis (Rehd. & Wilson) Spongberg - Chinese oyama magnolia or Floreplena magnolia (CENTRAL CHINA)
- Magnolia wilsonii (Finet. & Gagnep.) Rehd. - Wilson's magnolia (SW CHINA)
- Magnolia fraseri Walt. - Fraser magnolia or ear-leaved magnolia (SE US)
- Magnolia fraseri var. fraseri - Fraser magnolia or ear-leaved magnolia (SE US)
- Magnolia fraseri var. pyramidata (Bartram) Pampanini - pyramid magnolia (SE US)
- Magnolia macrophylla Michx. - bigleaf magnolia (SE US, E MEXICO)
Anthers open by splitting at the sides, deciduous, flowers mostly produced before leaves (except M. acuminata)
- Magnolia amoena W.C.Cheng - Tianmu magnolia or Tienmu magnolia (E CHINA)
- Magnolia biondii Pampan - spring hope magnolia (E CHINA)
- Magnolia campbellii Hook.f. & Thomson - Campbell's magnolia (W CHINA, HIMALAYAS, INDIA, NEPAL, ASSAM)
- Magnolia campbellii var. alba Treseder (HIMALAYAS)
- Magnolia campbellii var. campbellii . (HIMALAYAS)
- Magnolia campbellii var. mollicomata (W.W.Smith) F.Kingdon-Ward (W CHINA, HIMALAYAS)
- Magnolia cylindrica Wilson - Huangshan magnolia (E CHINA)
- Magnolia dawsoniana Rehd. & Wilson - Dawson's magnolia (SICHUAN (CHINA))
- Magnolia denudata Desr. - Yulan magnolia or lilytree (E CHINA)
- Magnolia kobus DC. - Kobushi magnolia (JAPAN, KOREA)
- Magnolia liliiflora Desr. - Mulan magnolia, purple magnolia, red magnolia or woody-orchid (C CHINA)
- Magnolia salicifolia (Sieb. & Zucc.) Maxim. - willow-leafed magnolia (JAPAN)
- Magnolia sargentiana Rehd. & Wilson - Sargent's magnolia (W CHINA)
- Magnolia sargentiana var. robusta Rehd. & Wilson (SICHUAN (CHINA))
- Magnolia sargentiana var. sargentiana . (W CHINA)
- Magnolia sprengeri Pampan - Sprenger's magnolia (SICHUAN (CHINA))
- Magnolia sprengeri var. elongata (Rehd. & Wilson) Johnstone (SICHUAN (CHINA))
- Magnolia sprengeri var. sprengeri . (SICHUAN (CHINA))
- Magnolia stellata (Sieb. & Zucc.) Maxim. - star magnolia (JAPAN)
- Magnolia × soulangeana Thiéb.-Bern. - saucer magnolia (HYBRID ORIGIN)
- Magnolia zenii Cheng - Zen magnolia (E CHINA)
- Magnolia loebneri Paul Kache - Loebneri magnolia (JAPAN)
- Magnolia acuminata (L.) L. - cucumber tree or blue magnolia (E NORTH AMERICA)
- Magnolia acuminata var. acuminata - cucumber tree or blue magnolia (E NORTH AMERICA)
- Magnolia acuminata var. subcordata (Spach) Dandy - yellow cucumber tree (SE US)
- Magnolia × alba (DC.) Figlar & Noot. - white champaca (HYBRID ORIGIN)
- Magnolia angustioblonga (Law & Wu) Figlar (SW CHINA)
- Magnolia baillonii Pierre (SW CHINA, VIETNAM)
- Magnolia balansae A.DC. (S CHINA, VIETNAM)
- Magnolia banghamii (Noot.) Figlar & Noot. (MALAYSIA, SUMATRA)
- Magnolia braianensis (Gagnep.) Figlar (VIETNAM)
- Magnolia cavaleriei (Finet & Gagnep.) Figlar (S CHINA)
- Magnolia champaca (L.) Baillon ex Pierre (S INDIA, LESSER SUNDA IS., JAVA, MALAY PENIN.)
- Magnolia champaca var. champaca (S INDIA, LESSER SUNDA IS.)
- Magnolia champaca var. pubinervia (Blume) Figlar & Noot. (JAVA, MALAY PENIN.)
- Magnolia chapensis (Dandy) Sima (S CHINA, N VIETNAM)
- Magnolia compressa Maxim. (JAPAN, SW CHINA)
- Magnolia coriacea (H.T.Chang & B.L.Chen) Figlar (SE YUNNAN (CHINA))
- Magnolia dianica Sima & Figlar (SW CHINA)
- Magnolia doltsopa (Buch.-Ham. Ex DC.) Figlar (SW CHINA, HIMALAYAS)
- Magnolia elliptilimba (B.L.Chen & Noot.) Figlar (YUNNAN (CHINA))
- Magnolia ernestii Figlar . (SICHUAN (CHINA))
- Magnolia ernestii ssp. ernestii (SICHUAN (CHINA))
- Magnolia ernestii ssp. szechuanica (Dandy) Sima & Figlar (SICHUAN (CHINA))
- Magnolia figo (Lour.) DC. - banana-shrub or chenille copperleaf (SE CHINA)
- Magnolia figo var. crassipes (Law) Figlar & Noot. (SE CHINA)
- Magnolia figo var. figo . (SE CHINA)
- Magnolia figo var. skinneriana ined. (SE CHINA)
- Magnolia flaviflora (Law & Wu) Figlar (VIETNAM, SW CHINA)
- Magnolia floribunda (Finet & Gagnep.) Figlar . (S CHINA, VIETNAM)
- Magnolia foveolata (Merr. Ex Dandy) Figlar (S CHINA, VIETNAM)
- Magnolia fujianensis (Q.F.Zheng) Figlar (SE CHINA)
- Magnolia fulva (H.T.Chang & B.L.Chen) Figlar (YUNNAN (CHINA), VIET.?)
- Magnolia fulva var. calcicola Sima & Yu (YUNNAN (CHINA))
- Magnolia fulva var. fulva . (YUNNAN (CHINA))
- Magnolia guangxiensis (Law & R.Z.Zhou) Sima (GUANGXI (CHINA))
- Magnolia hypolampra (Dandy) Figlar (S CHINA, VIETNAM)
- Magnolia ingrata (B.L.Chen & S.C.Lang) Figlar (YUNNAN (CHINA))
- Magnolia jiangxiensis (H.T.Chang & B.L.Chen) Figlar (JIANGXI (CHINA))
- Magnolia kingii (Dandy) Figlar (BANGLADESH, ASSAM)
- Magnolia kisopa (Bush.-Ham. ex DC.) Figlar (VIETNAM, NEPAL)
- Magnolia koordersiana (Noot.) Figlar (MALAYSIA, W SUMATRA)
- Magnolia lacei (W.W.Smith) Figlar (SW CHINA, VIETNAM)
- Magnolia lanuginosa (Wall.) Figlar & Noot. (YUNNAN (CHINA), NEPAL)
- Magnolia leveilleana (Dandy) Figlar (SW CHINA)
- Magnolia macclurei (Dandy) Figlar (S CHINA, N VIETNAM)
- Magnolia macclurei var. macclurei . (S CHINA, N VIETNAM)
- Magnolia macclurei var. sublanea Dandy (GUANGDONG (CHINA))
- Magnolia mannii (King) King (ASSAM)
- Magnolia martinii H.Lev. (SE CHINA, VIETNAM)
- Magnolia masticata (Dandy) Figlar (YUNNAN (CHINA), LAOS)
- Magnolia maudiae (Dunn) Figlar (SE CHINA, HAINAN IS.)
- Magnolia maudiae var. hunanensis (C.L.Peng & L.H.Yan) Sima (HUNAN (CHINA))
- Magnolia maudiae var. maudiae (SE CHINA, HAINAN IS.)
- Magnolia maudiae var. platypetala (Hand.-Mazz.) Sima (S-CENTRAL CHINA)
- Magnolia mediocris (Dandy) Figlar (S CHINA, VIETNAM)
- Magnolia microcarpa (B.L.Chen & S.C.Yang) Sima (S CHINA)
- Magnolia microtricha (Hand.-Mazz.) Figlar. (YUNNAN (CHINA))
- Magnolia montana (Blume) Figlar & Noot. (MALAYSIA to BORNEO)
- Magnolia nilagirica (Zenker) Figlar (S INDIA, SRI LANKA)
- Magnolia oblonga (Wall. Ex Hook.f. & Thomson) Figlar . (ASSAM)
- Magnolia odora (Chun) Figlar & Noot. (SE CHINA, N VIETNAM)
- Magnolia opipara (H.T.Chang & B.L.Chen) Sima (YUNNAN (CHINA))
- Magnolia philippinensis P.Pharm (PHILIPPINES)
- Magnolia punduana (Hook.f. & Thoms.) Figlar (ASSAM)
- Magnolia rajaniana (Craib.) Figlar . (THAILAND)
- Magnolia scortechinii (King) Figlar & Noot. (MALAY PENIN., W SUMATRA)
- Magnolia shiluensis (Chun & Y.F.Wu) Figlar (HAINAN IS.)
- Magnolia sirindhorniae Noot. & Chalermglin - Princess Sirindhorn's magnolia (THAILAND)
- Magnolia sphaerantha (C.Y.Wu ex Z.S.Yue) Sima (SW CHINA)
- Magnolia subulifera (Dandy) Figlar (VIETNAM)
- Magnolia sumatrae (Dandy) Figlar & Noot. (MALAYSIA, SUMATRA)
- Magnolia xanthantha (C.Y.Wu ex Law & Y.F.Wu) Figlar (YUNNAN (CHINA))
- Magnolia platyphylla (Merr.) Figlar & Noot. (PHILIPPINES)
- Magnolia pubescens (Merr.) Figlar & Noot. (PHILIPPINES)
- Magnolia tsiampacca (L.) Figlar & Noot.. (SUMATRA, NEW GUINEA, MALAYSIA, BORNEO)
- Magnolia tsiampacca ssp. mollis (Dandy) Figlar & Noot. (SUMATRA, BORNEO)
- Magnolia tsiampacca ssp. tsiampacca (SUMATRA, NEW GUINEA, MALAYSIA)
- Magnolia tsiampacca ssp. tsiampacca var. glaberrima (Dandy) Figlar & Noot. (MALAYSIA, NEW GUINEA)
- Magnolia tsiampacca ssp. tsiampacca var. tsiampacca (SUMATRA, NEW GUINEA)
- Magnolia vrieseana (Miq.) Baill. Ex Pierre (SULAWESI, MOLUCCAS)
- Magnolia annamensis Dandy (VIETNAM)
- Magnolia carsonii Dandy ex Noot. (BORNEO, CELEBES)
- Magnolia carsonii var. carsonii (BORNEO)
- Magnolia carsonii var. drymifolia Noot. (BORNEO)
- Magnolia carsonii var. phaulanta (Dandy ex Noot.) S.Kim (CELEBES)
- Magnolia cathcartii (Hook.f. & Thoms.) Noot. (SW CHINA, BURMA)
- Magnolia griffithii King (INDIA, ASSAM)
- Magnolia gustavii King - Gustav's magnolia (INDIA, ASSAM)
- Magnolia macklottii (Korth.) Dandy (W JAVA, BORNEO, SUMATRA)
- Magnolia macklottii var. beccariana (Agostini) Noot. (SUMATRA)
- Magnolia macklottii var. macklottii (W JAVA, BORNEO)
- Magnolia pealiana King (ASSAM)
- Magnolia ashtonii Dandy ex. Noot. (SUMATRA, BORNEO)
- Magnolia bintuluensis (Agostini) Noot. (SUMATRA, BORNEO)
- Magnolia borneensis Noot. (BORNEO, PHILIPPINES)
- Magnolia elegans (Blume) Keng (SUMATRA, JAVA)
- Magnolia pahangensis Noot. (BORNEO, PHILIPPINES)
- Magnolia kachirachirai (Kanehira & Yamamoto) Dandy (TAIWAN)
- Magnolia lotungensis Chun & Tsoon (S CHINA)
- Magnolia nitida W.W.Smith - glossy magnolia (NW YUNNAN (CHINA))
- Magnolia omeiensis (Hu & Cheng) Dandy (SICHUAN (CHINA))
- Magnolia yunnanensis (Hu) Noot. . (SE YUNNAN (CHINA))
- Magnolia pleiocarpa (Dandy) Figlar & Noot. (ASSAM)
- Magnolia praecalva (Dandy) Figlar & Noot. (VIETNAM, MALAY PENIN.)
- Magnolia sinica (Law) Noot. (SE YUNNAN (CHINA))
In general, the Magnolia genus has attracted horticultural interest. Some, such as the star magnolia (M. stellata) and the saucer magnolia (Magnolia × soulangeana) flower quite early in the spring, before the leaves open. Others flower in late spring or early summer, including the sweetbay magnolia (M. virginiana) and the southern magnolia (M. grandiflora).
Hybridisation has been immensely successful in combining the best aspects of different species to give plants which flower at an earlier age than the parent species, as well as having more impressive flowers. One of the most popular garden magnolias, saucer magnolia (Magnolia × soulangeana), is a hybrid of M. liliiflora and M. denudata.
In the eastern United States, five native species are frequently in cultivation: M. acuminata (as a shade tree), M. grandiflora, M. virginiana, M. tripetala, and M. macrophylla. The last two species must be planted where high winds are not a frequent problem because of the size of their leaves.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (September 2012)|
The bark and flower buds of M. officinalis have long been used in traditional Chinese medicine, where they are known as hou po (厚朴). In Japan, kōboku, M. obovata, has been used in a similar manner.
|Mature Magnolia fruit just starting to open, with a few seeds visible|
The cucumbertree, M. acuminata, grows to large size and is harvested as a timber tree in northeastern US forests. Its wood is sold as "yellow poplar" along with that of the tuliptree, Liriodendron tulipifera. The Fraser magnolia, M. fraseri, also attains enough size sometimes to be harvested, as well.
In parts of Japan, the leaves of M. obovata are used for wrapping food and as cooking dishes.
Chemical compounds and bioeffects
The aromatic bark contains magnolol, honokiol, 4-O-methylhonokiol, and obovatol. Magnolol and honokiol activate the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma.
In official and unofficial plants
- M. grandiflora is the official state flower of both Mississippi and Louisiana. The flower's abundance in Mississippi is reflected in its nickname of "Magnolia State". The magnolia is also the official state tree of Mississippi. Historically, magnolias have been associated with the Southern United States.
- Siebold's magnolia (M. sieboldii) is the national flower of North Korea.
In film and television
- Paul Thomas Anderson created a movie titled Magnolia.
- Steel Magnolias is a 1989 American comedy-drama film about the bond among a group of women from Louisiana, who can be as beautiful as magnolias, but are as tough as steel. The magnolia specifically references a magnolia tree about which they are arguing at the beginning.
- The French song by Salvatore Adamo "Les collines de Rabiah" in the 1970ss describes the magnolia trees in Beirut and calls for peace.
- David Sylvian recorded a song titled "The Scent Of Magnolia" in 1999. This was included on the 2000 compilation Everything and Nothing and was also released as a promotional single.
- The Grateful Dead recorded a song titled "Sugar Magnolia" that was first released on the 1970 album American Beauty. The song made its live debut on June 7, 1970, at the Fillmore West in San Francisco. The semiofficial 1972 Dead movie Sunshine Daydream has its title taken from the song's coda section.
- Rabindranath Tagore has mentioned magnolia in his poem "Mukti in Gitimalya".
- In the 1939 song "Strange Fruit", written to condemn the practice of lynching, the magnolia flower was referenced as being associated with the Southern United States, where most lynchings took place: "Pastoral scene of the gallant south/The bulging eyes and the twisted mouth/Scent of magnolias, sweet and fresh,/Then the sudden smell of burning flesh."
- The number of species in the genus Magnolia depends on the taxonomic view that one takes up. Recent molecular and morphological research shows that former genera Talauma, Dugandiodendron, Manglietia, Michelia, Elmerrillia, Kmeria, Parakmeria, Pachylarnax (and a small number of monospecific genera) all belong within the same genus, Magnolia s.l. (s.l. = sensu lato: 'in a broad sense', as opposed to s.s. = sensu stricto: 'in a narrow sense'). The genus Magnolia s.s. contains about 120 species. See the section Nomenclature and classification in this article.
- Crane, P.R. (1988), The phylogenetic position and fossil history of the Magnoliaceae. in: Hunt, D. (ed.), Magnolias and their allies (Milbourne Port): 21.
- Plumier, C. (1703) Nova plantarum Americanarum genera. Paris. [New genera of American plants].
- Dillenius, J.J. (1732), Hortus Elthamensis, seu plantarum rariorum quas in horto suo Elthami in Cantio coluit vir ornamentissimus et praestantissimus Jacobus Sherard. London [The garden of Eltham, or rather about the rare plants that the most distinguished and prominent man Jacob Sherard grows in his garden in Eltham in Kent].
- Catesby, M. (1730), The Natural History of Carolina, Florida and the Bahama Islands, containing the figures of birds, beasts, fishes, serpents, insects and plants, Vol. 1. London.
- Lamarck, J.B.P.A. de (1786), Encyclopédie Méthodique Botanique, tome second: 127. Paris.
- Under the rule of priority, the first name that is validly published in Linnaeus' Species Plantarum (1 May 1753) or any other work of any other botanist after that, takes precedence over later names. Plumier's name was not a binomen and moreover published before Species Plantarum, so it has no status. The first binomen published after 1753 was Lamarck's Annona dodecapetala (1786). Magnolia plumieri (1788) was published on a later date by Schwartz, and is treated as a later synonym, as are Magnolia fatiscens (1817; Richard), Talauma caerulea (Jaume St-Hilaire 1805) and Magnolia linguifolia (1822).
- Magnolia glauca has the same type specimen as Magnolia virginiana and as the latter is the first valid name, the species is now called Magnolia virginiana (sweetbay magnolia). Var. fœtida was renamed Magnolia grandiflora, which is legitimate as the epithet fœtida only has priority in its rank of variety. Magnolia grandiflora is the southern magnolia. Magnolia tripetala (umbrella magnolia) and Magnolia acuminata (cucumber tree) are still recognized as species.
- Under these names the species were described by Desrousseaux in Lamarck's Encyclopédie Méthodique Botanique, tome troisieme (1792): 675. In the beginning of the 20th century, descriptions which seemed to represent the same species, were found in a work of the French naturalist P.J. Buc'hoz, Plantes nouvellement découvertes (1779), under the names Lassonia heptapeta and Lassonia quinquepeta. In 1934, the English botanist J.E. Dandy argued that these names had priority over the names by which both species had been known for over a century and hence from then on Magnolia denudata had to be named Magnolia heptapeta, Magnolia liliiflora should be changed into Magnolia quinquepeta. After a lengthy debate, specialist taxonomists decided that the Buc'hoz's names were based on chimaeras (pictures constructed of elements of different species), and as Buc'hoz did not cite or preserve herbarium specimens, his names were ruled not to be acceptable.
- These species were published as Liriodendron coco and Liriodendron figo by J. de Loureiro in Flora Cochinchinensis (1790) and later (1817) transferred to Magnolia by A. P. de Candolle. Magnolia figo was soon after transferred to the genus Michelia.
- Magnolia kobus only received its name in 1814, when it was validly published by A.P. de Candolle. There has been much confusion about earlier attempts to validly publish this species, especially because descriptions and type specimens did not match.
- In 1927 J.E. Dandy accepted 10 genera in The genera of Magnoliaceae, Kew Bulletin 1927: 257-264. In 1984 Law Yuh-Wu proposed 15 in A preliminary study on the taxonomy of the family Magnoliaceae, Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica 22: 89-109; in 2004 even 16, in Magnolias of China. This is not just about grouping some genera together where others do not; authors often choose different boundaries.
- Azuma, H., L.B. Thien & S. Kawano (1999), Molecular phylogeny of Magnolia (Magnoliaceae) inferred from cpDNA sequences and evolutionary divergence of the floral scents. Journal of Plant Research 112(1107): 291-306.
- Azuma, H., García-Franco, J.G., Rico-Gray, V., and Thien, L.B. (2001). Molecular phylogeny of the Magnoliaceae: the biogeography of tropical and temperate disjunctions. American Journal of Botany. 88: 2275-2285.
- Kim, S. et al. (2001), Phylogenetic relationships in family Magnoliaceae inferred from ndhF sequences. American Journal of Botany. 88(4): 717-728.
- Figlar, R.B. (2000), Proleptic branch initiation in Michelia and Magnolia subgenus Yulania provides basis for combinations in subfamily Magnolioideae. In: Liu Yu-hu et al., Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Family Magnoliaceae: 14-25, Science Press, Beijing.
- 4. Magnoliaceae, Flora of China
- Classification used by the Magnolia Society accessed 8 July 2013
- Often treated as a distinct species, Magnolia pyramidata.
- Often treated as a distinct species, Magnolia ashei.
- Often treated as a distinct species, Magnolia dealbata.
- Han H., Jung J.K., Han S.B., Nam S.Y., Oh K.W., Hong J.T. (2011). "Anxiolytic-like effects of 4-O-methylhonokiol isolated from magnolia officinalis through enhancement of GABAergic transmission and chloride influx". Journal of Medicinal Food 14 (7–8): 724–731. doi:10.1089/jmf.2010.1111. PMID 21501091.
- Kalman D.S., Feldman S., Feldman R., Schwartz H.I., Krieger D.R., Garrison R. (2008). "Effect of a proprietary Magnolia and Phellodendron extract on stress levels in healthy women: A pilot, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial". Nutrition Journal 7 (1): 11. doi:10.1186/1475-2891-7-11.
- Ma L., Chen J., Wang X., Liang X., Luo Y., Zhu W., Wang T., Peng M., Li S., Jie S., Peng A., Wei Y., Chen L. (2011). "Structural modification of honokiol, a biphenyl occurring in magnolia officinalis: The evaluation of honokiol analogues as inhibitors of angiogenesis and for their cytotoxicity and structure-activity relationship". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 54 (19): 6469–6481. doi:10.1021/jm200830u. PMID 21853991.
- Fried L.E., Arbiser J.L. (2009). "Honokiol, a multifunctional antiangiogenic and antitumor agent". Antioxidants and Redox Signaling 11 (5): 1139–1148. doi:10.1089/ars.2009.2440. PMC 2842137. PMID 19203212.
- Hu J., Chen L.-J., Liu L., Chen X., Chen P., Yang G.-L., Hou W.-L., Tang M.-H., Zhang F., Wang X.-H., Zhao X., Wei Y.-Q. (2008). "Liposomal honokiol, a potent anti-angiogenesis agent, in combination with radiotherapy produces a synergistic antitumor efficacy without increasing toxicity". Experimental & Molecular Medicine 40 (6): 617–628. doi:10.3858/emm.2008.40.6.617. PMC 2679338. PMID 19116447.
- Lee YJ, Lee YM, Lee CK, Jung JK, Han SB, Hong JT (2011). "Therapeutic applications of compounds in the Magnolia family". Pharmacol Ther. 130 (2): 157–176. doi:10.1016/j.pharmthera.2011.01.010. PMID 21277893.
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- Atanasov AG, Wang JN, Gu SP, Bu J, Kramer MP, Baumgartner L, Fakhrudin N, Ladurner A, Malainer C, Vuorinen A, Noha SM, Schwaiger S, Rollinger JM, Schuster D, Stuppner H, Dirsch VM, Heiss EH. Honokiol: A non-adipogenic PPARγ agonist from nature. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013 Jun 27;1830(10):4813-4819. doi:10.1016/j.bbagen.2013.06.021. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID 23811337. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23811337
- Scanlon, J. (2007) "If My Husband Calls I’m Not Here: The Beauty Parlor as Real and Representational Female Space". Feminist Studies, 33 (2)
- Callaway, D.J. (1994). The World of Magnolias. Portland, Oregon, Timber Press. ISBN 0-88192-236-6
- Hunt, D. (ed). (1998). Magnolias and Their Allies. International Dendrology Society & Magnolia Society. ISBN 0-9517234-8-0
- Johnstone, G.H. (1955). Asiatic Magnolias in cultivation. London, The Royal Horticultural Society.
- Law, Y.W. (= Liu, Y.H.) (2004). Magnolias of China. Hong-Kong, Beijing Science & Technology Press. ISBN 7-5304-2765-2
- Treseder, N.G. (1978). Magnolias. London/Boston, Faber & Faber. ISBN 0-571-09619-0
- Cicuzza, D., Newton, A. and Oldfield, S. 2007. The Red List of Magnoliaceae Fauna & Flora International and Botanic Gardens Conservation International report
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