The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • (1) "Rocky Mountain Elk Foundation Elk Facts." Rocky Mountain Elk Foundation Elk Facts. N.p., n.d.
  • (2) Altmann, Margaret. "Social behavior of elk, Cervus canadensis Nelsoni, in the Jackson Hole area of Wyoming." Behaviour 4.2 (1952): 116-43.
  • (3) Holsworth, William Norton. "Interactions between moose, elk and buffalo in Elk Island National Park, Alberta." (1960). Masters Thesis. University of British Columbia.
  • Type: Bailey, V. 1935 Nov 15. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington. 48: 188.
  • Type: Merriam, C. H. 1898 Dec 17. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 11: 272.
  • Type: Nelson, E. W. 1902 Jan 16. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 16: 7.
  • Web. 24 Oct. 2013.
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 2005. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd ed., vols. 1 & 2. 2142


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