Physical Description

Type Information

Type for Alces americanus americanus
Catalog Number: USNM 86166
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Mammals
Sex/Stage: Male;
Preparation: Skin; Skull
Collector(s): D. De Weese
Year Collected: 1898
Locality: Tustumena Lake, North Side, Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, United States, North America
  • Type: Miller, G. S. 1899 May 29. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 13: 57.
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Type for Alces americanus americanus
Catalog Number: USNM 202973
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Mammals
Sex/Stage: Male;
Preparation: Skin; Skull
Collector(s): J. Shive
Year Collected: 1913
Locality: Snake River Bottoms, 4 Miles S Yellowstone Park, Lincoln County, Wyoming, United States, North America
  • Type: Nelson, E. W. 1914 Apr 25. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 27: 72.
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Wikipedia

Western moose

The Western moose (Alces alces andersoni) is a subspecies of moose that inhabits boreal forests and mixed deciduous forests in most of Canada and some parts of the northern United States. It is the second largest American subspecies of moose, second to the Alaska Moose. Male Western moose are aggressive during mating season (autumn and winter) and may injure or kill with provocation.

Habitat, range, and distribution[edit]

The Western moose inhabits British Columbia, Western Ontario, eastern Yukon, Northwest Territories, southwestern Nunavut, northern Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, the upper peninsula of Michigan, northern Wisconsin, northern Minnesota, northeastern North Dakota, and some of western Alaska.

Diet[edit]

Western Moose eat terrestrial vegetation such as forbs and shoots from willow and birch trees and aquatic plants, including lilies and pondweed. Western Moose can consume up to 9,770 calories a day, about 32 kilograms (71 lb). The Western moose, like other species, lacks upper front teeth but instead has eight sharp incisors on its lower jaw. They also have a tough tongue, gums, and lips to help chew woody vegetation.

Size and weight[edit]

Male Western moose stand anywhere from 1.9 to 2.0 metres (6.2 to 6.6 ft) at the shoulder. Their antlers span 1.5 to 1.7 metres (4.9 to 5.6 ft) and they weigh anywhere from 380–720 kilograms (840–1,590 lb). Female Western moose stand at 1.8 metres (5 ft 11 in) on average, and weigh anywhere from 270 to 360 kilograms (600 to 790 lb).

Social structure and reproduction[edit]

Western moose do not form social bonds and only come into contact to mate or to battle for a mate. Elevated testosterone levels during mating season mean that bulls may attack anything during mating season, including humans, wolves, elk, and bear. They use a subtle mating call to attract females or to announce to other males that they are in the area. In the event of a fight over mating rights, bull moose risk locking their antlers, which almost always results in them both dying from starvation. Western moose females will have, on average, one or two calves at once. A female may attack if she feels that her calves are threatened, although, at around 10–11 months yearling Western moose are chased off by their mothers to fend for themselves.

Hunting[edit]

With a population of about 950,000 individuals, they are hunted every autumn and winter in both Canada and the United States. Annual quotas vary depending on local population estimates and hunter success from the previous season.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Albert W. Franzmann (1981-05-08). "Alces alces.". Mammalian Species. Retrieved 2012-02-21. 
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Eastern moose

The Eastern Moose (Alces alces americana) is a subspecies of Moose. that ranges throughout most of Eastern Canada and most of the New England states and northern New York. Eastern Moose inhabit boreal forests and mixed deciduous forests, which provide camouflage from predators such as wolves and humans. The Eastern Moose is the third largest subspecies of moose, behind the Western Moose and the Alaska Moose. Male Eastern Moose along with all the other moose species are extremely aggressive during mating season and will attack or kill anything that provokes it.

Habitat, range, and distribution[edit]

The Eastern Moose ranges from Eastern Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, Newfoundland(not Labrador) and Nova Scotia. In the United States, it inhabits Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and northern New York State. The population of the Eastern Moose is rapidly increasing due to the fact that its habitat is vastly undeveloped. Many observations have reported the average direction of the Moose population expansion is heading south. As of the present day the moose population expands to as far south as Upstate New York and throughout northern Connecticut, though Pennsylvania and New Jersey have yet to report sightings of Moose. However, many believe the ever-expanding population will reach those two states in around ten years but maybe more depending on the speed of how frequent they reproduce and how abundant food and water will continue to be as they would likely expand their territory further south. There are about 350,000 Eastern Moose, with about 3/4 of them mating every autumn and winter. The only Eastern Moose that do not mate are bull moose that lose to another bull moose for breeding rights.

Diet[edit]

Eastern Moose have a diet similar to that of the other Moose species and includes terrestrial vegetation forbs and shoots from trees such as willow and birch. Eastern Moose can consume 32 kg in a day. Eastern Moose also forage for aquatic plants such as lilies and pondweed during the spring and summer.[1] Like other moose species, Eastern Moose lack upper front teeth but have eight sharp incisors on their lower jaw.

Size and weight[edit]

Male Eastern Moose stand on average 1.7-2.0m (5–7 ft) at the shoulder. Eastern Moose antlers have an average span of about 1.5m (5–6 ft) across. The weight of a male Eastern Moose averages about 634 kg (1,396 lbs). Female Eastern Moose stand on average 1.7m (5–6 ft) at the shoulder and weigh 270–260 kg (600-800 lbs). Eastern Moose are the third largest subspecies of moose only behind the Western Moose and the Alaska Moose.

Social structure and reproduction[edit]

Eastern Moose are solitary most of the year and only come into contact with other individuals either to mate or for two bull moose to fight for breeding rights. Along with other moose species, bull Eastern Moose have high testosterone levels and will attack anything that provokes or scares it. This includes humans, wolves, elk, and bears. Confrontations often come out with deadly results. During a fight between two bulls, they both take the risk of getting their antlers locked. This results in a slow, painful death from starvation. Female Eastern Moose are mostly peaceful towards humans unless she has calves with her. She will attack anything that is within her territory. Like other moose species, male Eastern Moose use mating calls to attract females to mate with or to challenge another bull moose for mating rights. At 10–11 months, yearling moose are chased off by their mothers to fend for themselves.

Hunting[edit]

Eastern Moose are hunted for food and sport during Autumn and Winter.[2]

In the past, the Eastern Moose population has increased rapidly, causing a problem for residents in their habitat, and hunting helped control the Eastern Moose population. Hunters use both bows and arrows and guns to hunt Eastern Moose and are only allowed to hunt male moose because the female moose could be pregnant when killed. As of 2014, there is concern regarding the decline in the moose population in northern New England, possibly due to the winter tick.[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Moose Fact Sheet". Connecticut Environmental Protection. Retrieved 12 December 2011. 
  2. ^ "Newfoundland Moose Hunting". Newfoundland Hunting. Retrieved 12 December 2011. 
  3. ^ Hari Sreenivasan (2014-04-07). "What’s devastating the wild moose population in New England?". http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/alarming-decline-wild-moose-new-hampshire/. Retrieved 2014-04-08.
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