Overview

Distribution

Range Description

Very little is know of the actual distribution and range limits for the Central American red brocket. It is presumed to occur in southern México, North and central Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, Panama, and extend into western Colombia. In México there are records for states around the cost of gulf of Mexico and Pacific ocean: Tamaulipas, San Luis Potosí, Veracruz, Oaxaca, Chiapas, Tabasco, Campeche and Quintana Roo. Further field and genetic reserach are required to determine where M. temama seperates from M. americana and vice versa.
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Ecology

Habitat

Bocas del Toro-San Bastimentos Island-San Blas Mangroves Habitat

This taxon is found in the Bocas del Toro-San Bastimentos Island-San Blas mangroves ecoregion, but not necessarily exclusive to this region. The Bocas del Toro-San Bastimentos Island-San Blas mangroves is one of the ecoregions of Panama, situated on the Caribbean coast of northern Panama. Precipitation in this region, entirely in the form of rainfall, amounts to approximately 6000 mm per annum. This ecoregion is largely comprised of mangrove swamps and contains an extensive coral reef system that protects the mangroves by moderating ocean wave action; in turn the mangroves trap sediment and promote water clarity than enhance coral reef development. Extensive submerged areas of this ecoregion are considered seagrass meadows, a highly biodiverse marine ecosystem that has high primary productivity as well as considerable species richness In the shallower waters are found manatee along with numerous corals, sponges, pipefishes and baracuda. The deeper coastal waters are habitat for dolphins, most notably at Dolphin Bay, somewhat south of Bastimentos Island.

The dominant shoreline ecoregion feature is the presence of Red Mangrove trees, whose submerged roots stabilize the shoreline. The near coastal zone and low elevation upland areas of this ecorefion also support a host of other flora, as well as birds, mammals, amphibians and arthropods.

Birdlife at the coastal upland and rich coastal riparian zone and other near shore upland habitats is quite diverse. A notable terrestrial bird endemic to the Bocas del Toro region is the Brown Parakeet. Another notable bird found in this ecoregion is the Pale-billed woodpecker, Campephilus guatemalensis, a large bird, who is found at the southern limit of his range here. The White-fronted nunbird, Monasa morphoeus, is a near passerine species found at the moist lowland forest edge, including secondary growth. Another bird found here that is tolerant of degraded forest is the Crimson-fronted parakeet, Aratinga finschi. A specialist bird to the mangroves and also dense somewhat upland areas of Bocas is the Rufous-necked wood-rail, Aramides axillaris. The Bare-necked umbrella bird is normally found at the higher elevation margin of the Bocas area, but can often be found in the near coastal fringe in non-breeding season.

Mammalian species include the Collared-peccary, who may be found in mainland Bocas del Toro lowland moist forest or grasslands. Also found here is the critically endangered Pygmy three-toed sloth, Bradypus pygmaeus, whose extant population of no more than a few hundred animals is restricted to the tiny (3.4 km2) island of Isla Escudo de Veraguas. There are also Central American red brocket, Mazama temama, a species of forest deer widespead in Mesoamerica.

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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
The brocket deer is considered characteristic of well-preserved high forest sites (Branan and Marchinton 1985, Eisenberg 1989). It occupies perennial forest, cloud forest, sub-perennial forest and low-dry forest (Reyna-Hurtado 2002, Ivan-Lira and Naranjo-Piñera 2003). It can, however, be found at transformed sites such as secondary forests and cropland as well (Bodmer 1989, Bello 2004), but in some conserved areas it avoids deforested areas and agricultural vegetation types (Weber 2005). During three years of camera-trapping in the Cordillera Talamanca region in Costa Rica - the species was found in a variety of native (but not altered) forest and non forest habitats, and from lowlands to paramo (2,800 m asl) (J. Schipper unpublished data). In areas with high hunting intensity, brocket deer also use low flooded forest (Reyna-Hurtado 2002). Its preference for well-preserved sites seems to be a protective strategy, as deer can stand still and hide in thick vegetation when a predator approaches, or run through it without being easily caught (Pinder and Leeuwenberg 1997). Further research is needed to determine the degree of disturbance and isolation of the fragments that they inhabit.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
DD
Data Deficient

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
Bello, J., Reyna, R. & Schipper, J.

Reviewer/s
Black, P. & Gonzalez, S. (Deer Red List Authority)

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is considered to be Data Deficient do to ongoing uncertainty in its taxonomy, distribution, habitat and threats. This species is likely threatened, however, the degree to which is unclear. Until there is some knowledge of what the range of the taxa is in relation to M. americana and where the species remains within the known range, then it is not possible to apply the Red List Categories and Criteria. There is growing concern as to the effects of the numerous possible threats to this species - in some regions it remains only in protected areas while in others is seems to survive outside of protected areas. Hunting could be a serious threat and therefore until the limits to the distribution are better defined it is not possible to say the extent and effect of the threats.

In recent years information has been generated regarding its abundance and/or distribution; however, there is a lack of information regarding these aspects within its entire distribution range. It is a species that is found in preserved tropical rainforest areas but has also been recorded in areas with secondary vegetation. The extent of disturbance to which these species can adapt is not known with certainty, but there are records of sites with large cropland and pasture areas where the presence of this species is low or not present at all. It is unknown whether this species’ density is naturally low or if there are factors that cause these reductions. Mexico has records of hunting as a means of population control since this species is a bean cultivation plague; moreover, its abundance and distribution have been reduced in some areas within the southeast part of Mexico due to catastrophic events such as forest fires.
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Population

Population
Total populations are unknown. There is some information about density but only at local level abundance for Mexico. Including Protected areas, the estimates were of 0.09 deer/km² in tropical forest (including M. Pandora) (Weber 2005), in cloud forest the estimate was 0.32 individuals/km² (Lira-Torres and Naranjo-Piñera 2003). No reliable estimates exist for Nicaragua, Honduras or Colombia.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
Habitat fragmentation and degradations for agricultural and livestock activities is one of the principal factors in the reduction of their potential habitats and distribution. This also includes natural disasters such as wildfire (Bello 2004). Hunting is a major threat in some areas - especially in and around protected areas. Harvesting for cultural activities, and principally as a food source could influence their populations levels and behaviour (Reyna-Hurtado 2002). Another threat that has existed for a long time is their killing as a pest control in bean croplands (Méndez-Izquierdo and Bello-Gutiérrez 2005).
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
The species is listed in CITES Appendix III for Guatemala as M. temama cerasina.
Recommended conservation actions are: further information about habitat status, distribution and abundance, ecological research; study about their importance for human community as uses and harvest levels and their cultural relevance; implementation of management plans and legislations at international and national level.
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Wikipedia

Central American red brocket

The Central American red brocket, Mazama temama, is a species of brocket deer ranging from southern Mexico, through Central America, to northwestern Colombia.[2] It was formerly treated as a subspecies of the red brocket from South America, but its karyotype has 2n = 50, while the latter's was initially described as having 2n = 68-70.[1] However, a more recent description gives the red brocket a variable karyotype with 2n varying from 48 to 54.[3] It is sympatric with the Yucatan brown brocket over part of its range. The species is found in primary and secondary tropical forest, and is probably threatened by hunting and deforestation.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Bello, J., Reyna, R. & Schipper, J. (2008). Mazama temama. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 19 March 2009.
  2. ^ Grubb, P. (2005). "Order Artiodactyla". In Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 657. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494. 
  3. ^ Durate, J.M.B., Vogliotti, A. & Barbanti, M. (2008). Mazama americana. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 7 November 2009.
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