Bocas del Toro-San Bastimentos Island-San Blas Mangroves Habitat
This taxon is found in the Bocas del Toro-San Bastimentos Island-San Blas mangroves ecoregion, but not necessarily exclusive to this region. The Bocas del Toro-San Bastimentos Island-San Blas mangroves is one of the ecoregions of Panama, situated on the Caribbean coast of northern Panama. Precipitation in this region, entirely in the form of rainfall, amounts to approximately 6000 mm per annum. This ecoregion is largely comprised of mangrove swamps and contains an extensive coral reef system that protects the mangroves by moderating ocean wave action; in turn the mangroves trap sediment and promote water clarity than enhance coral reef development. Extensive submerged areas of this ecoregion are considered seagrass meadows, a highly biodiverse marine ecosystem that has high primary productivity as well as considerable species richness In the shallower waters are found manatee along with numerous corals, sponges, pipefishes and baracuda. The deeper coastal waters are habitat for dolphins, most notably at Dolphin Bay, somewhat south of Bastimentos Island.
The dominant shoreline ecoregion feature is the presence of Red Mangrove trees, whose submerged roots stabilize the shoreline. The near coastal zone and low elevation upland areas of this ecorefion also support a host of other flora, as well as birds, mammals, amphibians and arthropods.
Birdlife at the coastal upland and rich coastal riparian zone and other near shore upland habitats is quite diverse. A notable terrestrial bird endemic to the Bocas del Toro region is the Brown Parakeet. Another notable bird found in this ecoregion is the Pale-billed woodpecker, Campephilus guatemalensis, a large bird, who is found at the southern limit of his range here. The White-fronted nunbird, Monasa morphoeus, is a near passerine species found at the moist lowland forest edge, including secondary growth. Another bird found here that is tolerant of degraded forest is the Crimson-fronted parakeet, Aratinga finschi. A specialist bird to the mangroves and also dense somewhat upland areas of Bocas is the Rufous-necked wood-rail, Aramides axillaris. The Bare-necked umbrella bird is normally found at the higher elevation margin of the Bocas area, but can often be found in the near coastal fringe in non-breeding season.
Mammalian species include the Collared-peccary, who may be found in mainland Bocas del Toro lowland moist forest or grasslands. Also found here is the critically endangered Pygmy three-toed sloth, Bradypus pygmaeus, whose extant population of no more than a few hundred animals is restricted to the tiny (3.4 km2) island of Isla Escudo de Veraguas. There are also Central American red brocket, Mazama temama, a species of forest deer widespead in Mesoamerica.
- C.Michael Hogan. 2013. "Bocas del Toro-San Bastimentos Island-San Blas". Encyclopedia of Earth, National Council for Science and the Environment, Washington DC ed.Mark McGinley
- Burton Le Roy Gordon. 1982. A Panama forest and shore: natural history and Amerindian culture in Bocas del Toro.
Habitat and Ecology
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
In recent years information has been generated regarding its abundance and/or distribution; however, there is a lack of information regarding these aspects within its entire distribution range. It is a species that is found in preserved tropical rainforest areas but has also been recorded in areas with secondary vegetation. The extent of disturbance to which these species can adapt is not known with certainty, but there are records of sites with large cropland and pasture areas where the presence of this species is low or not present at all. It is unknown whether this speciesâ density is naturally low or if there are factors that cause these reductions. Mexico has records of hunting as a means of population control since this species is a bean cultivation plague; moreover, its abundance and distribution have been reduced in some areas within the southeast part of Mexico due to catastrophic events such as forest fires.
Recommended conservation actions are: further information about habitat status, distribution and abundance, ecological research; study about their importance for human community as uses and harvest levels and their cultural relevance; implementation of management plans and legislations at international and national level.
Central American red brocket
The Central American red brocket, Mazama temama, is a species of brocket deer ranging from southern Mexico, through Central America, to northwestern Colombia. It was formerly treated as a subspecies of the red brocket from South America, but its karyotype has 2n = 50, while the latter's was initially described as having 2n = 68-70. However, a more recent description gives the red brocket a variable karyotype with 2n varying from 48 to 54. It is sympatric with the Yucatan brown brocket over part of its range. The species is found in primary and secondary tropical forest, and is probably threatened by hunting and deforestation.
- Bello, J., Reyna, R. & Schipper, J. (2008). Mazama temama. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 19 March 2009.
- Grubb, P. (2005). "Order Artiodactyla". In Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 657. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
- Durate, J.M.B., Vogliotti, A. & Barbanti, M. (2008). Mazama americana. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 7 November 2009.
- Louise Emmons (January 1997). Neotropical Rainforest Mammals: A Field Guide (2nd ed.). University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-20721-6. OCLC 20296862.
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