Habitat and Ecology
According to the absence or presence of flooding, the Amazonian rain forests are broadly classified into respectively non-flooded (tierra/terra firme) and seasonally flooded (várzea) forests. Mazama nemorivaga inhabits the non-flooded forests and is rare or absent in the seasonally flooded forests. For example, it does not occur in the Pacaya-Samiria National Reserve in Peru, which covers an area of over 2 million hectares of seasonally flooded várzea forests. However, it is found in the adjacent inter-fluvial upland forests of the Yavari valley (Bodmer 2003).
Reproduction biology of the Amazonian brown brocket deer has been studied by Hurtado-Gonzales (2000) in the northeast Peruvian Amazon. Breeding appeared to be year round, and occurred from January to March, July to October, and December. Births occurred in January, March, April, and from July through October. No twinning was observed and the pregnancy rate was 0.50 pregnant females/total numbers of females. Most of the pregnant females were adults between 1 and 2 years old. In northeast Bolívar, Venezuela, Bisbal (1994) found pregnant females in December, January, and April. Births occurred in July, August, and November, apparently associated with the rainy season.
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Barcode data: Mazama nemorivaga
Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.
See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.
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Download FASTA File
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Mazama nemorivaga
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
In this region, the Amazonian brown brocket has considerably lower population densities than the red brocket. The density of the former is around 0.43-0.55 individuals per km² and its biomass estimates range from 6.5-8.2 kg/km². In contrast, red brocket deer usually have densities around 1.0 individuals per km² and a biomass of around 33 kg/km² (Salovaara et al. 2003).
Populations of Amazonian brown brocket were also reported in Suriname (Branan et al. 1985); in the Reserva Florestal Imataca, northeast of the state of Bolívar, Venezuela (Bisbal 1994); and in French Guiana (Gayot et al. 2004). Other populations of this deer are certainly present in many reserves or even private areas with well preserved forests. But the extant to which they are isolated from each other is unknown, due to the lack of knowledge on how this species responds to altered and fragmented habitats.
Although the Amazon forest has been destroyed for many reasons, the main cause of deforestation is cattle raising, responsible for 70% of forest loss in the Brazilian Amazon (Fearnside 2005). Besides the destruction of forest, the cattle itself may negatively affect deer populations through a variety of parasitic, bacterial or viral diseases that can contaminate them. Indeed, Pinder and Leeuwenberg (1997) mentioned that there are reports of high mortality rates of deer previously in contact with ill cattle in the Brazilian Pantanal region and the states of Maranhão and Minas Gerais. The extent to which the cattle affect populations of M. nemorivaga is unknown.
Fortunately, overhunting appears not to be a threat to Mazama nemorivaga. This species is usually less abundant than the sympatric red brocket deer (M. americana), but also has lower hunting pressure. Branan et al. (1985) reported the harvest of 5 individuals of the former species against 57 individuals of the latter by Surinamese hunters in 1980 and 1981. Similarly, Hurtado-Gonzales and Bodmer (2004) found a rate of 0.06 individuals hunted/km² for M. nemorivaga in contrast to 0.17 individuals hunted/km² for M. americana in a heavy hunted site in northeastern Peru. In addition to the low hunting pressure, most studies on the sustainability of hunting by Peruvian rural and indigenous people reported that the harvest of Mazama nemorivaga is within sustainable limits (Ascorra 1997; Bodmer 1995; Bodmer et al. 1997; Hurtado-Gonzales and Bodmer 2004; Mena et al. 2000). There are two likely reasons for that. First, brockets (including M. americana and M. nemorivaga) can be categorized as less vulnerable to overhunting because of their fast rates of reproduction and intrinsic rates of population increase, allied to the ability of dispersal and difficulty of capture (see Bodmer et al. 1997, and Hurtado-Gonzales and Bodmer 2004). Second, slightly or unhunted areas adjacent to persistently hunted ones may have been acting as sources of game, as claimed by Novaro et al. (2000). According to them, 47 to 87% of unhunted area close to the catchment site is required to prevent a population decline of Amazonian brown brocket in the Peruvian Amazon.
Amazonian brown brocket
The Amazonian brown brocket (Mazama nemorivaga), also known as the small brown brocket, is a small species of deer that is almost entirely restricted to South America. It is known from Panama (in Isla San José of the Pearl Islands only; endemic subspecies M. n. permira), Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, eastern Ecuador, eastern Peru, Brazil and possibly northern Bolivia. Habitats it is found in include primarily nonflooded Amazonian tropical rainforest, and locally also tropical deciduous forest and xeric shrublands, at altitudes up to 1,500 metres (4,900 ft). However, reports from the latter habitats may actually represent M. gouazoubira.
Breeding occurs year round in some areas, with births tending to be concentrated in the rainy season. It is threatened by deforestation and by diseases spread by cattle, but not particularly by hunting.
It is sympatric with the larger M. americana over much of its range (the latter tends to have significantly higher population densities), and reportedly also with M. gouazoubira in a few areas. It was considered a subspecies of M. gouazoubira, with which it is parapatric, until 2000. Under normal viewing conditions it is not easily distinguished from M. gouazoubira, but unlike M. americana it is gray-brown overall with paler underparts.
- Rossi, R. V. & Duarte, J. M. B. (2008). "Mazama nemorivaga". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.3. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 10 October 2010.
- "Mazama nemorivaga". ZipcodeZoo. BayScience Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 10 October 2010.
- Rossi, R. V. (2000). Taxonomia de Mazama Rafinesque, 1817 do Brasil (Artiodactyla, Cervidae). M.Sc. Thesis, Universidade de São Paulo.
- Grubb, P. (2005). "Order Artiodactyla". In Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 656. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
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