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Borophagus secundus

Borophagus secundus ("devouring glutton") is an extinct species of the genus Borophagus of the subfamily Borophaginae, a group of canids endemic to North America from the Early Miocene epoch (23.0 Mya) through the Late Miocene epoch (5.3 Mya). Borophagus secundus existed for approximately 17.7 million years.[2]

Overview[edit]

Borophagus secundus, like other Borophaginae, are loosely known as "bone-crushing" or "hyena-like" dogs. Though not the most massive borophagine by size or weight, it had a more highly evolved capacity to crunch bone than earlier, larger genera such as Epicyon, which seems to be an evolutionary trend of the group (Turner, 2004). During the Pliocene epoch, Borophagus began being displaced by Canis genera such as Canis edwardii and later by Canis dirus. Early species of Borophagus were placed in the genus Osteoborus until recently, but the genera are now considered synonyms.[1]

Taxonomy[edit]

Typical features of this genus are a bulging forehead and powerful jaws; it was considered to be probably a scavenger by paleontologists in the past.[3] Its crushing premolar teeth and strong jaw muscles would have been used to crack open bone, much like the hyena of the Old World. However, Borophagus (and particularly B. secundus) fossils are so abundant and geographically widespread that some paleontologists now argue that Borophagus must have been both the dominant carnivore of its time, and thus an active predator because carrion feeding alone could not have sustained such a large population.[4] They note that not all carnivores with bone-cracking ability are scavengers, such as the modern spotted hyena; instead, they interpret the bone-cracking ability as an adaptation to social hunting where complete utilization of a carcass was favored. [5]

The adult animal is estimated to have been about 80 cm in length, similar to a coyote, although it was much more powerfully built.[6]

Morphology[edit]

Two fossil specimens of Borophagus secundus were measured by Legendre and Roth in 1988. They estimated that specimen one weighed 41 kg (90.3 lbs) and the second weighed 36.1 kg (79.5 lbs).[7]

Fossil distribution[edit]

Borophagus secundus fossil specimens are very widespread from Honduras and El Salvador to central Mexico, Oklahoma panhandle, central and southern California, Nebraska, Kansas, and northern New Mexico.

Species[edit]

Existence based on age of fossil collections and recombination with other species.

Sister genera[edit]

Carpocyon, Epicyon, Paratomarctus, Protepicyon

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Wang, Xiaoming; Richard Tedford; Beryl Taylor (1999-11-17). "Phylogenetic systematics of the Borophaginae". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 243. Retrieved 2007-07-08. 
  2. ^ PaleoBiology Database: Borophagus secundus, basic info
  3. ^ Lambert, David (1985). The Field Guide to Prehistoric Life. New York: Facts on File. p. 163. ISBN 0-8160-1125-7. 
  4. ^ Wang, Xiaoming; and Tedford, Richard H. Dogs: Their Fossil Relatives and Evolutionary History. New York: Columbia University Press, 2008. pp112-3
  5. ^ Wang, Xiaoming; and Tedford, Richard H. Dogs: Their Fossil Relatives and Evolutionary History. New York: Columbia University Press, 2008. pp112-3
  6. ^ Palmer, D., ed. (1999). The Marshall Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Animals. London: Marshall Editions. p. 220. ISBN 1-84028-152-9. 
  7. ^ S. Legendre and C. Roth. 1988. Correlation of carnassial tooth size and body weight in recent carnivores (Mammalia). Historical Biology: p. 85-98
  • Alan Turner, "National Geographic: Prehistoric Mammals" (Washington, D.C.: Firecrest Books Ltd., 2004), pp. 112–114. ISBN 0-7922-7134-3

Further reading[edit]

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Borophagus pugnator

Borophagus pugnator ("devouring glutton") is an extinct species of the genus Borophagus of the subfamily Borophaginae, a group of canids endemic to North America from the early Miocene epoch through the late Miocene epoch 23.3—4.9 Ma. Borophagus pugnator existed for approximately 18 million years.[2]

Overview[edit]

Borophagus, like other Borophaginae, are loosely known as "bone-crushing" or "hyena-like" dogs. Though not the most massive borophagine by size or weight, it had a more highly evolved capacity to crunch bone than earlier, larger genera such as Epicyon, which seems to be an evolutionary trend of the group (Turner, 2004). During the Pliocene epoch, Borophagus began being displaced by Canis genera such as Canis edwardii and later by Canis dirus. Early species of Borophagus were placed in the genus Osteoborus until recently, but the genera are now considered synonyms.[1] Borophagus pugnator possibly led a hyena-like lifestyle scavenging carcasses of recently dead animals.

Taxonomy[edit]

Typical features of this genus are a bulging forehead and powerful jaws; it was probably a scavenger.[3] Its crushing premolar teeth and strong jaw muscles would have been used to crack open bone, much like the hyena of the Old World. The adult animal is estimated to have been about 80 cm in length, similar to a coyote, although it was much more powerfully built.[4]

Morphology[edit]

Two fossil specimens of Borophagus pugnator were measured by Legendre and Roth for body mass.[5] The results are as follows:

  • Specimen 1: 41.1 kg (91 lb)
  • Specimen 2: 36 kg (79 lb)

Recombination[edit]

Borophagus pugnator was originally named Porthocyon pugnator by Cook 1932. It was recombined by Matthew as Aelurodon pugnator in 1924 followed by Matthew and Stirton in 1830. It was then recombined as Osteoborus pugnator by Stirton and VanderHoof in 1933 and others until recombined as Borophagus pugnator by VanderHoof (1931) and X. Wang et al. in 1999.

Fossil distribution[edit]

Specimens were found at only 2 sites. Near Withlacoochee River, Florida and coastal North Carolina.

Species[edit]

Existence based on age of fossil collections and recombination with other species.

Sister genera[edit]

Carpocyon, Epicyon, Paratomarctus, Protepicyon

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Wang, Xiaoming; Richard Tedford; Beryl Taylor (1999-11-17). "Phylogenetic systematics of the Borophaginae". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 243. Retrieved 2007-07-08. 
  2. ^ PaleoBiology Database: Borophagus pugnator, basic info
  3. ^ Lambert, David (1985). The Field Guide to Prehistoric Life. New York: Facts on File. p. 163. ISBN 0-8160-1125-7. 
  4. ^ Palmer, D., ed. (1999). The Marshall Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Animals. London: Marshall Editions. p. 220. ISBN 1-84028-152-9. 
  5. ^ S. Legendre and C. Roth. 1988. Correlation of carnassial tooth size and body weight in recent carnivores (Mammalia). Historical Biology: p. 85-98
  • Alan Turner, "National Geographic: Prehistoric Mammals" (Washington, D.C.: Firecrest Books Ltd., 2004), pp. 112-114. ISBN 0-7922-7134-3

Further reading[edit]

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Borophagus orc

Borophagus orc is an extinct species of the genus Borophagus of the subfamily Borophaginae, a group of canids endemic to North America from the late Zanclean stage of the Pliocene epoch (10.3 Mya) through the Hemphillian stage of the Miocene epoch (4.9 Mya). Borophagus orc existed for approximately 5.4 million years.[2]

Overview[edit]

Borophagus, like other Borophaginae, are loosely known as "bone-crushing" or "hyena-like" dogs. Though not the most massive borophagine by size or weight, it had a more highly evolved capacity to crunch bone than earlier, larger genera such as Epicyon, which seems to be an evolutionary trend of the group (Turner, 2004). During the Pliocene epoch, Borophagus began being displaced by Canis genera such as Canis edwardii and later by Canis dirus. Early species of Borophagus were placed in the genus Osteoborus until recently, but the genera are now considered synonyms.[1] Borophagus orc possibly led a hyena-like lifestyle scavenging carcasses of recently dead animals.

Taxonomy[edit]

Typical features of this genus are a bulging forehead and powerful jaws; it was probably a scavenger.[3] Its crushing premolar teeth and strong jaw muscles would have been used to crack open bone, much like the hyena of the Old World. The adult animal is estimated to have been about 80 cm in length, similar to a coyote, although it was much more powerfully built.[4]

Morphology[edit]

Two fossil specimens of Borophagus orc were measured by Legendre and Roth in 1988. They estimated that specimen one weighed 24.3 kg (53.5 lbs) and the second weighed 22 kg (48.5 lbs).[5]

Recombination[edit]

Borophagus orc was recombined by X. Wang in 1999.

Fossil distribution[edit]

Specimens were found at only 2 sites. Near Withlacoochee River, Florida and coastal North Carolina.

Species[edit]

Existence based on age of fossil collections and recombination with other species.

Sister genera[edit]

Carpocyon, Epicyon, Paratomarctus, Protepicyon

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Wang, Xiaoming; Richard Tedford; Beryl Taylor (1999-11-17). "Phylogenetic systematics of the Borophaginae". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 243. Retrieved 2007-07-08. 
  2. ^ PaleoBiology Database: Borophagus orc, basic info
  3. ^ Lambert, David (1985). The Field Guide to Prehistoric Life. New York: Facts on File. p. 163. ISBN 0-8160-1125-7. 
  4. ^ Palmer, D., ed. (1999). The Marshall Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Animals. London: Marshall Editions. p. 220. ISBN 1-84028-152-9. 
  5. ^ S. Legendre and C. Roth. 1988. Correlation of carnassial tooth size and body weight in recent carnivores (Mammalia). Historical Biology: p. 85-98
  • Alan Turner, "National Geographic: Prehistoric Mammals" (Washington, D.C.: Firecrest Books Ltd., 2004), pp. 112-114. ISBN 0-7922-7134-3

Further reading[edit]

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Borophagus littoralis

Borophagus littoralis ("devouring glutton") is an extinct species of the genus Borophagus of the subfamily Borophaginae, a group of canids endemic to North America from the early Miocene epoch (23.3 Mya) through the Pliocene epoch (4.9 Mya). Borophagus littoralis existed for approximately 10 million years.[2]

Overview[edit]

Borophagus littoralis was named by Cope in 1892 and is considered synonymized with Osteoborus diabloensis. Borophagus littoralis, like other Borophaginae, are loosely known as "bone-crushing" or "hyena-like" dogs. Though not the most massive borophagine by size or weight, it had a more highly evolved capacity to crunch bone than earlier, larger genera such as Epicyon, which seems to be an evolutionary trend of the group (Turner, 2004). During the Pliocene epoch, Borophagus began being displaced by Canis genera such as Canis edwardii and later by Canis dirus. Early species of Borophagus were placed in the genus Osteoborus until recently, but the genera are now considered synonyms.[1] Borophagus littoralis possibly led a hyena-like lifestyle scavenging carcasses of recently dead animals.

Taxonomy[edit]

Typical features of this genus are a bulging forehead and powerful jaws; it was probably a scavenger.[3] Its crushing premolar teeth and strong jaw muscles would have been used to crack open bone, much like the hyena of the Old World. The adult animal is estimated to have been about 80 cm in length, similar to a coyote, although it was much more powerfully built.[4]

Morphology[edit]

Two fossil specimens of Borophagus littoralis were measured by Legendre and Roth for body mass.[5]

  • Specimen 1: 40.2 kg (89 lb)
  • Specimen 2: 35.4 kg (78 lb)

Fossil distribution[edit]

Borophagus diversidens fossil specimens are confined to 3 sites in California.

Species[edit]

Existence based on age of fossil collections and recombination with other species.

Sister genera[edit]

Carpocyon, Epicyon, Paratomarctus, Protepicyon

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Wang, Xiaoming; Richard Tedford; Beryl Taylor (1999-11-17). "Phylogenetic systematics of the Borophaginae". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 243. Retrieved 2007-07-08. 
  2. ^ PaleoBiology Database: Borophagus littoralis, basic info
  3. ^ Lambert, David (1985). The Field Guide to Prehistoric Life. New York: Facts on File. p. 163. ISBN 0-8160-1125-7. 
  4. ^ Palmer, D., ed. (1999). The Marshall Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Animals. London: Marshall Editions. p. 220. ISBN 1-84028-152-9. 
  5. ^ S. Legendre and C. Roth. 1988. Correlation of carnassial tooth size and body weight in recent carnivores (Mammalia). Historical Biology: p. 85-98
  • Alan Turner, "National Geographic: Prehistoric Mammals" (Washington, D.C.: Firecrest Books Ltd., 2004), pp. 112–114. ISBN 0-7922-7134-3

Further reading[edit]

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Borophagus diversidens

Borophagus diversidens ("devouring glutton") is an extinct species of the genus Borophagus of the subfamily Borophaginae, a group of canids endemic to North America from the early Miocene epoch through the Pliocene epoch 4.9—1.8 Ma. Borophagus dudleyi existed for approximately 3.1 million years.[2]

Overview[edit]

Borophagus diversidens was named by Cope in 1892. Members of its subfamily, Borophaginae, are loosely known as "bone-crushing" or "hyena-like" dogs. Though not the most massive borophagine by size or weight, it had a more highly evolved capacity to crunch bone than earlier, larger genera such as Epicyon, which seems to be an evolutionary trend of the group (Turner, 2004). During the Pliocene epoch, Borophagus began being displaced by Canis genera such as Canis edwardii and later by Canis dirus. Early species of Borophagus were placed in the genus Osteoborus until recently, but the genera are now considered synonyms.[1] B. diversidens possibly led a hyena-like lifestyle scavenging carcasses of recently dead animals.

Taxonomy[edit]

Typical features of this genus are a bulging forehead and powerful jaws; it was probably a scavenger.[3] Its crushing premolar teeth and strong jaw muscles would have been used to crack open bone, much like the hyena of the Old World. The adult animal is estimated to have been about 80 cm in length, similar to a coyote, although it was much more powerfully built.[4]

Morphology[edit]

Two fossil specimens of Borophagus diversidens were measured by Legendre and Roth in 1988. They estimated that specimen one weighed 89 kg (196 lbs) and the second weighed 75.4 kg (166 lbs).[5]

Recombination[edit]

Borophagus diversidens was recombined as Dinocyon Borophagus diversidens by Matthew in 1902 and then recombined as Dinocyon diversidens by Matthew the same year. It was recombined as Hyaenarctos diversidens. It has been synonymized with Felis hillianus, Hyaenognathus matthewi, Hyaenognathus pachyodon, Hyaenognathus solus, and Porthocyon dubius.

Fossil distribution[edit]

Borophagus diversidens fossil specimens are very widespread from 2 sites in central Florida to central Mexico, from western Oregon and western Washington to New Mexico, Arizona, and Texas.

Species[edit]

Existence based on age of fossil collections and recombination with other species.

Sister genera[edit]

Carpocyon, Epicyon, Paratomarctus, Protepicyon

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Wang, Xiaoming; Richard Tedford; Beryl Taylor (1999-11-17). "Phylogenetic systematics of the Borophaginae". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 243. Retrieved 2007-07-08. 
  2. ^ PaleoBiology Database: Borophagus diversidens, basic info
  3. ^ Lambert, David (1985). The Field Guide to Prehistoric Life. New York: Facts on File. p. 163. ISBN 0-8160-1125-7. 
  4. ^ Palmer, D., ed. (1999). The Marshall Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Animals. London: Marshall Editions. p. 220. ISBN 1-84028-152-9. 
  5. ^ S. Legendre and C. Roth. 1988. Correlation of carnassial tooth size and body weight in recent carnivores (Mammalia). Historical Biology: p. 85-98
  • Alan Turner, "National Geographic: Prehistoric Mammals" (Washington, D.C.: Firecrest Books Ltd., 2004), pp. 112-114. ISBN 0-7922-7134-3

Further reading[edit]

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Borophagus hilli

Borophagus hilli ("devouring glutton") is an extinct species of the genus Borophagus of the subfamily Borophaginae, a group of canids endemic to North America from the early Miocene epoch (23.3 Mya) through the Pliocene epoch (4.9 Mya). Borophagus dudleyi existed for approximately 19.7 million years.[2]

Overview[edit]

Borophagus hilli was named by C. S. Johnston in 1939.[3] Borophagus dudleyi, like other Borophaginae, are loosely known as "bone-crushing" or "hyena-like" dogs. Though not the most massive borophagine by size or weight, it had a more highly evolved capacity to crunch bone than earlier, larger genera such as Epicyon, which seems to be an evolutionary trend of the group (Turner, 2004). During the Pliocene epoch, Borophagus began being displaced by Canis genera such as Canis edwardii and later by Canis dirus. Early species of Borophagus were placed in the genus Osteoborus until recently, but the genera are now considered synonyms.[1] Borophagus hilli possibly led a hyena-like lifestyle scavenging carcasses of recently dead animals.

Taxonomy[edit]

Typical features of this genus are a bulging forehead and powerful jaws; it was probably a scavenger.[4] Its crushing premolar teeth and strong jaw muscles would have been used to crack open bone, much like the hyena of the Old World. The adult animal is estimated to have been about 80 cm in length, similar to a coyote, although it was much more powerfully built.[5]

Morphology[edit]

Two fossil specimens of Borophagus hilli were measured by Legendre and Roth for body mass.[6]

  • Specimen 1: 61 kg (130 lb)
  • Specimen 2: 57.7 kg (130 lb)

Recombination[edit]

Borophagus hilli was synonymized subjectively with Borophagus direptor by Kurten and Anderson in 1980 as well as synonymous with Osteoborus crassapineatus, Osteoborus progressus. It was recombined as Borophagus hilli by Xiaoming Wang et al. in 1999.

Fossil distribution[edit]

Borophagus hilli fossil specimens are widespread from east central Florida to southeastern Washington, from Idaho to New Mexico to Texas. Specimens were also found as far south as the southern tip of Baja, Mexico

Species[edit]

Existence based on age of fossil collections and recombination with other species.

Sister genera[edit]

Carpocyon, Epicyon, Paratomarctus, Protepicyon

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Wang, Xiaoming; Richard Tedford; Beryl Taylor (1999-11-17). "Phylogenetic systematics of the Borophaginae". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 243. Retrieved 2007-07-08. 
  2. ^ PaleoBiology Database: Borophagus dudleyi, basic info
  3. ^ C. S. Johnston. 1939. Journal of Paleontology
  4. ^ Lambert, David (1985). The Field Guide to Prehistoric Life. New York: Facts on File. p. 163. ISBN 0-8160-1125-7. 
  5. ^ Palmer, D., ed. (1999). The Marshall Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Animals. London: Marshall Editions. p. 220. ISBN 1-84028-152-9. 
  6. ^ S. Legendre and C. Roth. 1988. Correlation of carnassial tooth size and body weight in recent carnivores (Mammalia). Historical Biology: p. 85-98
  • Alan Turner, "National Geographic: Prehistoric Mammals" (Washington, D.C.: Firecrest Books Ltd., 2004), pp. 112-114. ISBN 0-7922-7134-3

Further reading[edit]

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Borophagus dudleyi

Borophagus dudleyi ("devouring glutton") is an extinct species of the genus Borophagus of the subfamily Borophaginae, a group of canids endemic to North America from the late Hemphillian of the Miocene epoch (10.3 Mya) through the Pliocene epoch (4.9 Mya). Borophagus dudleyi existed for approximately 19.7 million years.[2]

Overview[edit]

Borophagus dudleyi was originally named Pliogulo dudleyi by T.E. White in 1941.[3] Borophagus dudleyi, like other Borophaginae, are loosely known as "bone-crushing" or "hyena-like" dogs. Though not the most massive borophagine by size or weight, it had a more highly evolved capacity to crunch bone than earlier, larger genera such as Epicyon, which seems to be an evolutionary trend of the group (Turner, 2004). During the Pliocene epoch, Borophagus began being displaced by Canis genera such as Canis edwardii and later by Canis dirus. Early species of Borophagus were placed in the genus Osteoborus until recently, but the genera are now considered synonyms.[1] Borophagus parvus possibly led a hyena-like lifestyle scavenging carcasses of recently dead animals.

Taxonomy[edit]

Borophagus dudleyi was recombined as Cynogulo dudleyi by Kretzoi in 1968. It was recombined again as Osteoborus dudleyi by Webb in 1969 and Munthe in 1998. The animal was then synonymized subjectively with Borophagus crassapineatus by Richey in 1979. In 1987, Richard H. Tedford returned its original name and Xiaoming Wang along with Richard H. Tedford and Beryl E. Taylor concurred in a 1999 examination.

Morphology[edit]

Typical features of this genus are a bulging forehead and powerful jaws; it was probably a scavenger.[4] Its crushing premolar teeth and strong jaw muscles would have been used to crack open bone, much like the hyena of the Old World. The adult animal is estimated to have been about 80 cm in length, similar to a coyote, although it was much more powerfully built.[5]

Fossil distribution[edit]

Borophagus dudleyi fossil specimens are exclusive to a coastal area of North Carolina.

Species[edit]

Existence based on age of fossil collections and recombination with other species.

Can be found in Florida as well. Not exclusive to North Carolina.

Sister genera[edit]

Carpocyon, Epicyon, Paratomarctus, Protepicyon

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Wang, Xiaoming; Richard Tedford; Beryl Taylor (1999-11-17). "Phylogenetic systematics of the Borophaginae". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 243. Archived from the original on 2007-03-20. Retrieved 2007-07-08. 
  2. ^ PaleoBiology Database: Borophagus dudleyi, basic info
  3. ^ T. E. White. 1941. Addition to the fauna of the Florida Pliocene. Proceedings of the New England Zoological Club 67-70
  4. ^ Lambert, David (1985). The Field Guide to Prehistoric Life. New York: Facts on File. p. 163. ISBN 0-8160-1125-7. 
  5. ^ Palmer, D., ed. (1999). The Marshall Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Animals. London: Marshall Editions. p. 220. ISBN 1-84028-152-9. 
  • Alan Turner, "National Geographic: Prehistoric Mammals" (Washington, D.C.: Firecrest Books Ltd., 2004), pp. 112-114. ISBN 0-7922-7134-3

Further reading[edit]

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Borophagus

Borophagus ("gluttonous eater") is an extinct genus of the subfamily Borophaginae, a group of canids endemic to North America from the early Miocene epoch through the Zanclean stage of the Pliocene epoch 23.3—3.6 Mya. Borophagus existed for approximately 19.7 million years.[2]

Evolution[edit]

Restoration of two Borophagus preying on a camel

Borophagus, like other borophagines, are loosely known as "bone-crushing" or "hyena-like" dogs. Though not the most massive borophagine by size or weight, it had a more highly evolved capacity to crunch bone than earlier, larger genera such as Epicyon, which seems to be an evolutionary trend of the group (Turner, 2004). During the Pliocene epoch, Borophagus began being displaced by Canis genera such as Canis edwardii and later by Canis dirus. Early species of Borophagus were placed in the genus Osteoborus until recently, but the genera are now considered synonyms.[1]

Canidae competitors[edit]

Borophagus was one of the last of the Borophaginae and would have shared its North American habitat with other canids: Epicyon ((20.6—5.330 Ma), Paratomarctus (16.3—5.3 Ma), Carpocyon (20.4—3.9 Ma), Aelurodon (23.03—4.9 Ma), and the first emerging wolf, Canis lepophagus appearing 10.3 Ma.

Taxonomy[edit]

Typical features of this genus are a bulging forehead and powerful jaws; Borophagus has been considered to be probably a scavenger by paleontologists in the past.[3] Its crushing premolar teeth and strong jaw muscles would have been used to crack open bone, much like the hyena of the Old World. However, Borophagus fossils are so abundant and geographically widespread that some paleontologists now argue that Borophagus must have been both the dominant carnivore of its time, and thus an active predator because carrion feeding alone could not have sustained such a large population. [4] They note that not all carnivores with bone-cracking ability are scavengers, such as the modern spotted hyena; instead, they interpret the bone-cracking ability as an adaptation to social hunting where complete utilization of a carcass was favored. [5]

The adult animal is estimated to have been about 80 cm in length, similar to a coyote, although it was much more powerfully built.[6]

Morphology[edit]

Two fossil specimens of Borophagus were measured by Legendre and Roth in 1988. They estimated that specimen one weighed 43.8 kilograms (97 lb) and the second weighed 35.8 kilograms (79 lb).[7]

Species[edit]

Restoration by Charles R. Knight, 1902

Existence based on age of fossil collections and recombination with other species.

Sister genera[edit]

Carpocyon, Epicyon, Paratomarctus, Protepicyon

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Wang, Xiaoming; Richard Tedford; Beryl Taylor (1999-11-17). "Phylogenetic systematics of the Borophaginae". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 243. Retrieved 2007-07-08. [dead link]
  2. ^ PaleoBiology Database: Borophagus, basic info
  3. ^ Lambert, David (1985). The Field Guide to Prehistoric Life. New York: Facts on File. p. 163. ISBN 0-8160-1125-7. 
  4. ^ Wang, Xiaoming; and Tedford, Richard H. Dogs: Their Fossil Relatives and Evolutionary History. New York: Columbia University Press, 2008. pp112-3
  5. ^ Wang, Xiaoming; and Tedford, Richard H. Dogs: Their Fossil Relatives and Evolutionary History. New York: Columbia University Press, 2008. pp112-3
  6. ^ Palmer, D., ed. (1999). The Marshall Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Animals. London: Marshall Editions. p. 220. ISBN 1-84028-152-9. 
  7. ^ S. Legendre and C. Roth. 1988. Correlation of carnassial tooth size and body weight in recent carnivores (Mammalia). Historical Biology: p. 85-98
  • Alan Turner, "National Geographic: Prehistoric Mammals" (Washington, D.C.: Firecrest Books Ltd., 2004), pp. 112-114. ISBN 0-7922-7134-3

Further reading[edit]

  • Xiaoming Wang, Richard H. Tedford, Mauricio Antón, Dogs: Their Fossil Relatives and Evolutionary History, New York : Columbia University Press, 2008; ISBN 978-0-231-13528-3
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