endemic to a single state or province
Regularity: Regularly occurring
Type of Residency: Year-round
Global Range: (<100-250 square km (less than about 40-100 square miles)) The range encompasses southern Florida, including Charlotte, Collier, and Lee counties on the Gulf Coast and Miami-Dade County on the Atlantic Coast (Timm and Genoways 2004); the species is known mainly from the Miami, Coral Gables, and Fort Lauderdale areas. According to Timm and Genoways (2004), "In the greater Miami area, only three records exist of the Florida bonneted bat after 1965. The most recent of these are from the 1990s; one is a single recent specimen from Coral Gables and one is an acoustic recording. Additionally, an extant, albeit probably small, population occurs along Florida's southwestern coast in Lee County near Fort Myers and adjacent Collier County in the Fakahatchee-Big Cypress area."
Excluding fossil records, Eumops floridanus was first recorded at Miami in 1936. A pregnant female was captured in Coral Gables in 1988, indicating the continued existence of this species in Florida after an earlier survey concluded that the subspecies probably was extinct (see Belwood 1992). Ted Fleming (pers. comm., 1994, 1995) obtained anecdotal acoustic evidence of the bat's continued existence in the Miami area between 1989 and 1993, and he also found evidence of an early 1990s occurrence in the George Merrick House in Coral Gables. This bat was found in 1979 near Punta Gorda, Charlotte County, on the western coast of Florida (8 individuals, including a pregnant female); the roost was destroyed as part of a highway construction project) (see Belwood 1992).
Length: 17 cm
Weight: 47 grams
Habitat and Ecology
This bat occurs in urban, suburban, and forested areas; it roosts in buildings (e.g., in attics, rock or brick chimneys of fireplaces, and especially under Spanish roof tiles, often in buildings dating from about 1920-1930), sometimes in tree hollows (including those made by woodpeckers), occasionally in foliage of palm trees (e.g., shafts of royal palm leaves); also has been found under rocks, in fissures in limestone outcrops, and near excavations (Layne 1978, Timm and Genoways 2004). The species is known primarily from suburbs, also (on the west coast) from a pine flatwoods community where several were found in a longleaf pine in a cavity 4.6 meters above ground; the cavity had been excavated by red-cockaded woodpeckers and enlarged by a pileated woodpecker (Belwood 1992); this tree was later cut down in conjunction with road construction. In the early 2000s, a colony consisting of at least one male and several females took up residence in a bat house in a North Fort Myers (Lee County) suburban backyard (Organization for Bat Conservation).
Comments: This bat occurs in urban, suburban, and forested areas; it roosts in buildings (e.g., in attics, rock or brick chimneys of fireplaces, and especially under Spanish roof tiles, often in buildings dating from about 1920-1930), sometimes in tree hollows (including those made by woodpeckers), occasionally in foliage of palm trees (e.g., shafts of royal palm leaves); also has been found under rocks, in fissures in limestone outcrops, and near excavations (Layne 1978, Timm and Genoways 2004). The species is known primarily from suburbs, also (on the west coast) from a pine flatwoods community where several were found in a longleaf pine in a cavity 4.6 meters above ground; the cavity had been excavated by red-cockaded woodpeckers and enlarged by a pileated woodpecker (Belwood 1992); this tree was later cut down in conjunction with road construction. In the early 2000s, a colony consisting of at least one male and several females took up residence in a bat house in a North Fort Myers (Lee County) suburban backyard (Organization for Bat Conservation).
Non-Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species do not make significant seasonal migrations. Juvenile dispersal is not considered a migration.
Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).
Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.
This bat is not migratory, but it may make seasonal shifts in roost locations (Belwood 1992, Timm and Genoways 2004).
Comments: Feeds on flying insects (e.g., Coleoptera, Diptera, and Hemiptera) (Belwood 1992). Forages high in open spaces; uses echolocation to detect prey at relatively long range (3-5 m) (see Belwood 1992).
Number of Occurrences
Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.
Estimated Number of Occurrences: 1 - 5
Comments: This species is represented by very few occurrences or subpopulations.
Comments: Total adult population size is unknown. The species appears to be rare but may be more numerous than historical evidence indicates (USFWS 1996). It roosts singly or in small groups.
Roosts singly or in groups of up to a few dozen individuals. Can take flight from horizontal surfaces; strong flier.
Life History and Behavior
Comments: Leaves roost after dark.
Eumops floridanus has a fairly extensive breeding season during spring and summer months; examination of the limited available data suggests that it may be polyestrous, with a second birthing season perhaps in January-February (Timm and Genoways 2004). Litter size is 1. Probably forms small maternity colonies, each of which may be defended by a single male (Belwood 1992).
Status: Proposed Endangered
Lead Region: Southeast Region (Region 4)
For most current information and documents related to the conservation status and management of Eumops floridanus, see its USFWS Species Profile
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
National NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded National Status Rank: N1 - Critically Imperiled
NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded Global Status Rank: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: Small range confined to southern Florida; natural habitat has been lost, but this bat uses Spanish tile roofs for roost sites and may colonize newly installed bat houses of appropriate design; may be more abundant than available information indicates; better information on distribution and abundance is needed.
Intrinsic Vulnerability: Highly vulnerable
Comments: This bat exhibits low fecundity (individual females produce only one young at a time).
Global Short Term Trend: Unknown
Global Long Term Trend: Unknown
Comments: This bat formerly may have been common on Florida's eastern coast in the Miami-Coral Gables area, but it has been reported there only a few times since the mid-1960s. One of the few occurrences in southwestern Florida was destroyed.
Degree of Threat: Very high - high
Comments: This bat is vulnerable to habitat loss (in urban and forested areas), habitat alteration (removal of old trees with cavities, or buildings with spaces suitable for roosting), and pesticide spraying for mosquitoes. The last may be responsible for the species' decline in the Miami area, as roosting sites are still abundant. Severe hurricanes may cause loss of older trees with roosting cavities. Hurricane Andrew, an intense Category 5 hurricane that struck southeastern Florida in 1992, may have had a significant impact upon the already low population of bonneted bats (Timm and Genoways 2004).
Management Requirements: Discontinue pesticide spraying for any area known to be used by species. Educate public about bats, especially this very rare species.
Management Research Needs: Virtually nothing is known of the life history or ecology of this bat. Research is needed on all aspects of its life.
Names and Taxonomy
Comments: Eger (1977) revised the genus and recognized E. g. floridanus (Allen 1932) in Florida and E. g. glaucinus in Cuba, Jamaica, Central America, and South America. Timm and Genoways (2004) examined range-wide geographic variation in morphology and concluded that Eumops floridanus should be recognized as a distinct species. Simmons (in Wilson and Reeder 2005) included floridanus as a subspecies of E. glaucinus, but Timm and Genoways (2004) was published too late for review by Simmons, who did state that E. glaucinus (including floridanus) may include more than one species.