The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • BOGGAN, J. K. 1991. A morphological study and cladistic analysis of Sinningia and associated genera with particular reference to Lembocarpus, Lietzia, Paliavana, and Vanhouttea (Gesneriaceae: Gloxinieae) M. S. thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.
  • BURTT, B. L. & H. WIEHLER. 1995. Classification of the family Gesneriaceae. Gesneriana 1: 1-4.
  • CRISCI, J. V., M. M. CIGLIANO, J. J. MORRONE, & S.ROIG-JUÑENT. 1991. Historical biogeography of southern South America. Syst. Zool. 40:152-171.
  • Essai sur les Propriétés Médicales des Plantes, ed. 2 192. 1816. (11 May 1816) (Essai Propr. Méd. Pl., ed. 2)
  • Hilliard, O.M. & Burtt, B.L. (1988) Gesneriaceae FZ 8(3)
  • INNIS, M. A., K. B. MYAMBO, D. H. GELFAND, & M. A. D. BROW. 1988. DNA sequencing and direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction-amplified DNA. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA 85: 9436-9440.
  • IVANINA, L. I. 1965. Application of the carpological method to the taxonomy of Gesneriaceae. Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh. 26: 383-402.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., R. D. C. Ortiz, R. Callejas Posada & M. Merello. (eds.) 2011. Fl. Antioquia: Cat. 2: 9–939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • KVIST, L. P. 1990. Revision of Heppiella (Gesneriaceae). Syst. Bot. 15: 720-735.
  • Luteyn, J. L. 1999. Páramos, a checklist of plant diversity, geographical distribution, and botanical literature. Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 84: viii–xv, 1–278.
  • SMITH, J. F. & K. J. SYTSMA. 1994a.Evolution in the Andean epiphytic genus Columnea (Gesneriaceae):Part I. morphological variation. Syst. Bot. 19: 220-235.
  • SMITH, J. F. & K. J. SYTSMA. 1994b. Evolution in the Andean epiphytic genus Columnea (Gesneriaceae): Part II. chloroplast DNA restriction site variation. Syst. Bot. 19: 317-336.
  • SMITH, J. F. & K. J. SYTSMA. 1994c. Molecules and morphology: congruence of data in Columnea (Gesneriaceae). Pl. Syst. Evol. 194: 37-52.
  • SMITH, J. F. 1996. Tribal relationships within the Gesneriaceae: A cladistic analysis of morphological data. Syst. Bot. 21: 497-513.
  • SMITH, J. F., J. C. Wolfram, K. D. Brown, C. L. CARROLL, & D. S. DENTON. 1997 Tribal relationships in the Gesneriaceae: Evidence from DNA sequences of the chloroplast gene. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 84: 50-66.
  • SMITH, J. F., K. D. BROWN, C. L. CARROLL, & D. S. DENTON. 1997. Familial placement of Cyrtandromoea, Titanotrichum, and Sanango: Three problematic genera of the Lamiales. Taxon 46: (in press).
  • Stevens, W. D., C. Ulloa Ulloa, A. Pool & O. M. Montiel. 2001. Flora de Nicaragua. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 85: i–xlii,.
  • WANG, W.T., K. PAN, & Z. LI. 1992. Keys to the Gesneriaceae of China. Edinburgh J. Bot. 49: 5-74.
  • WIEHLER, H. 1983. A synopsis of the neotropical Gesneriaceae.Selbyana 6: 1-249.
  • in A. P. de Candolle, Essai Propr. Méd. Pl., ed. 2: 192. 11 Mai 1816.


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