Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Armed or unarmed trees or shrubs, sometimes climbing, rarely suffrutices or perennial herbs (Thamnosma only). Stipules 0. Leaves opposite or alternate, simple or compound, often aromatic when crushed, dotted with translucent glands which may be confined to the margin only, usually readily visible when the leaf is held up to the light. Inflorescence a panicle, raceme or cluster. Flowers bisexual or unisexual, (2-)4-5-merous. Petals free. Stamens as many as or twice the number of petals, inserted at base of disk. Ovary composed of a single carpel or of 2-5(-7) partially or wholly united carpels, superior or semi-inferior. Fruit baccate or drupaceous, 1-4-locular or a capsule or rarely a 1-seeded follicle.
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Description

Trees or shrubs. Stipules 0. Leaves (in ours) opposite, paripinnate. Flowers dioecious or polygamous, 4-5-merous. Sepals 4-5, connate to almost free. Petals 4-5, free. Disk annular. Stamens 4-5, free. Ovary superior, 2-5-locular. Fruit a capsule, with carpels separating from a persistent central column. Seeds winged.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Rutaceae A.guadamuz340

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 6
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records: 2061
Specimens with Sequences: 2644
Specimens with Barcodes: 1979
Species: 651
Species With Barcodes: 630
Public Records: 833
Public Species: 322
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Barcode data

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Wikipedia

Rutaceae

Rutaceae, commonly known as the rue[3] or citrus family,[4] is a family of flowering plants, usually placed in the order Sapindales.

Species of the family generally have flowers that divide into four or five parts, usually with strong scents. They range in form and size from herbs to shrubs and small trees.

The most economically important genus in the family is Citrus, which includes the orange (C. × sinensis), lemon (C. × limon), grapefruit (C. × paradisi), and lime (various, mostly C. aurantifolia, the key lime). Boronia is a large Australian genus, some members of which are plants with highly fragrant flowers and are used in commercial oil production. Other large genera include Zanthoxylum, Melicope and Agathosma. There are approximatively 160 genera in the family Rutaceae:List of Rutaceae genera

Characteristics[edit]

Most species are trees or shrubs, a few are herbs (Boenninghausenia and Dictamnus), frequently aromatic with glands on the leaves, sometimes with thorns. The leaves are usually opposed and compound, and without stipules. Pellucid glands, a type of oil containing cavities[clarification needed], are found on the leaves responsible for the aromatic smell of the family's members; traditionally they have been the primary synapomorphic characteristic to identify the Rutaceae.

Flowers are bractless, solitary or in cyme, rarely in raceme, and mainly pollinated by insects. They are radially or (rarely) laterally symmetric, and generally hermaphroditic. They have four or five petals and sepals, sometimes three, mostly separate, eight to ten stamen (five in Skimmia, many in Citrus), usually separate or in several groups. Usually a single stigma with 2 to 5 united carpels, sometimes ovaries separate but styles combined.

The fruit of Rutaceae are very variable: berries, drupes, hesperidiums, samaras, capsules and follicles all occur. Seed number also varies widely.

Classification[edit]

The family is closely related to Sapindaceae, Simaroubaceae and Meliaceae, and all are usually placed into the same order, although some systems separate that order into Rutales and Sapindales. The families Flindersiaceae and Ptaeroxylaceae are sometimes kept separate, but nowadays generally placed in Rutaceae, as are the former Cneoraceae. The subfamilial organization has not been fully resolved, but the subfamily Aurantioideae (=Citroideae) is well supported; the placement of several genera remains unclear.

Notable species[edit]

various Citrus fruits

The family is of great economic importance in warm temperate and sub-tropical climates for its numerous edible fruits of the Citrus genus, such as the orange, lemon, calamansi, lime, kumquat, mandarin and grapefruit. Non-citrus fruits include the White sapote (Casimiroa edulis), Orangeberry (Glycosmis pentaphylla), Clymenia (Clymenia polyandra), Limeberry (Triphasia trifolia), and the Bael (Aegle marmelos). Other plants are grown in horticulture: Murraya and Skimmia species, for example. Ruta, Zanthoxylum and Casimiroa species are medicinals. Several plants are also used by the perfume industry, such as the Western Australian Boronia megastigma.

The genus Pilocarpus has species (P. jaborandi, and P. microphyllus from Brazil, and P. pennatifolius from Paraguay) from which the medicine pilocarpine, used to treat glaucoma, is extracted.

Spices are made from a number of species in the genus Zanthoxylum, notably Sichuan pepper.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Rutaceae Juss., nom. cons.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2003-01-17. Retrieved 2009-04-11. 
  2. ^ Takhtajan, Armen (2009). Flowering Plants (2 ed.). Springer. pp. 375–376. ISBN 978-1-4020-9608-2. 
  3. ^ RUTACEAE in BoDD – Botanical Dermatology Database
  4. ^ http://www.plantsystematics.org/taxpage/0/family/Rutaceae.html
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Cneoraceae

Cneoraceae is a Mediterranean relict shrub family that evolved under tropical conditions during the Cenozoic era. It is a dicot that generally favours higher altitudes and is rich in tannin. It produces both hermaphrodite and male flowers but the male flowers produce more fertile pollen, leading to a fruit.[1]

There are two genera and six species in tropical Africa, South and Southeast Asia, northern Australia, the Canary Islands, the northwestern Mediterranean, Cuba and China.

The APG II and APG III systems have assigned these genera to Rutaceae family.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Anna Traveset, Reproductive ecology of Cneorum tricoccon L. (Cneoraceae) in the Balearic Islands, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, Volume 117, Issue 3, March 1995, Pages 221-232, ISSN 0024-4074, doi:10.1006/bojl.1995.0014. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6WBX-45N4P92-Y/2/213b075ff0cc9979c929e55a142ef1f6) Keywords: andromonoecy; fecundity; phenology; sex expression; western Mediterranean
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Ptaeroxylaceae

Ptaeroxylaceae Juss.[1] are a small family of Southern African indigenous trees and woody lianes, most of them from Madagascar, comprising only two genera.[2] Such a family was not recognized by the APG II system of classification (2003), which noted that it was a synonym of Rutaceae.[3] The APG III system of 2009,[4] an updated version of the last system, did not mention the family. All species within this family are included within Rutaceae.

The family Ptaeroxylaceae was recognized by the Thorne system (1992), Dahlgren system, and Reveal system and placed in the Rutales.

Genus: Cedrelopsis [5] Baill.

Species:

Genus: Ptaeroxylon Ecklon & Zeyher, 1834 [6]

References[edit]

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