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Overview

Brief Summary

Biology

The species has separate sexes and breeding occurs from March to September. It has a planktonic veliger larva. Longevity is believed to be four or five years. At constant food conditions growth is found to be partly correlated with temperature (Salzwedel, 1979).
T. fabula lives up to 10 cm deep in the sediment and lies in a more or less horizontal position on the left valve. lt is a selective deposit as well as a suspension feeder. lts feeding behaviour probably changes with age and season (Salzwedel, 1979; Fish & Fish, 1989).
  • Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp.
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Source: World Register of Marine Species

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It is common for Tellina fabula to wash ashore along the entire coast either during or following off-shore winds. The shells are thin and fragile, but the part that holds the shell valves together is very strong, stronger than the shell itself. That explains why you often find these shells as doublets along the beach. The right valve of the Tellina fabula has wavy striations, while the left one is smooth. This shellfish has no common English name; it used to be referred to by a former Latin name, Fabulina fabula.
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ทดสอบการเพิ่มโอเวอร์วิว

ภาพรวมของระบบจัดเก็บครุภัณฑ์

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Comprehensive Description

Description

 An elongate, oval, bivalved shell with one abruptly tapered end. The outside of the shell is sculptured with fine concentric lines and pronounced growth rings, and the right valve has wavy striations. The shell is white in colour with tinges of yellow or orange. Fabulina fabula grows up to 2 cm in length.
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Distribution

In both periods the Tellina fabula was mainly found near the coast. Further than 20 km off the coast the species was only observed near the Bligh bank. In both periods the species especially occured in the western near-coastal zone. In the eastern coastal zone the species was almost absent. Maximum density was 1,000 to 1,500 ind./m2.
  • Degraer S., J. Wittoeck, W. Appeltans, K. Cooreman, T. Deprez, H. Hillewaert, K. Hostens, J. Mees, E. Vanden Berghe & M. Vincx (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1. 164 pp.
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Source: World Register of Marine Species

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Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Description

A thin, fragile shell up to 20 mm long. The back is clearly acuminate. The right valve features ribs running from the dorsal front edge to the ventral back edge; the left shell half is smooth. Both halves have a sculpture of very fine concentric lines. The colour of the shell ranges from white to orange-yellow. Burrow shallowly in fine, mudy sand or muddy bottoms.
  • Degraer S., J. Wittoeck, W. Appeltans, K. Cooreman, T. Deprez, H. Hillewaert, K. Hostens, J. Mees, E. Vanden Berghe & M. Vincx (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1. 164 pp.
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Source: World Register of Marine Species

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Morphology

A thin and brittle, somewhat flattened shell, approximately oval in outline. The right valve is a little more convex than the left one. It rarely reaches over 20 mm in length. The sculpture consists of very fine concentric lines and small radiating ribs on the right valve.
The growth stages are clear. The shell is white, pale yellow, or orange in colour. The inner surface is white, or tinted with yellow and orange (Tebble, 1966; Fish & Fish, 1989; Hayward & Ryland, 1990).
  • Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp.
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Source: World Register of Marine Species

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Ecology

Habitat

Tellina fabula occurs in a wide range of sediments. The species nevertheless prefers sediments with a median grain size of 150 to 250 µm (relative occurrence of 60%). The species has a low relative occurrence in sediments without mud or with a mud content of > 20%. The highest relative occurrence (70%) is reached in sediments with a mud content of 10-20%.
  • Degraer S., J. Wittoeck, W. Appeltans, K. Cooreman, T. Deprez, H. Hillewaert, K. Hostens, J. Mees, E. Vanden Berghe & M. Vincx (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1. 164 pp.
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Except for the Oyster Ground, where it is almost absent, T. fabula is found in all other parts of the area. This is unlike T. tenuis, which only occurs close to the coast. Markedly high numbers of T. fabula are found north of the Wadden islands, along the southern border of the Frisian Front and along the coast where the sediment consists of fine (muddy) sand.
  • Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp.
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Source: World Register of Marine Species

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Depth range based on 2013 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 865 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 130
  Temperature range (°C): 6.506 - 19.935
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.576 - 12.040
  Salinity (PPS): 31.839 - 39.051
  Oxygen (ml/l): 5.136 - 6.605
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.161 - 0.767
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.758 - 10.823

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 130

Temperature range (°C): 6.506 - 19.935

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.576 - 12.040

Salinity (PPS): 31.839 - 39.051

Oxygen (ml/l): 5.136 - 6.605

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.161 - 0.767

Silicate (umol/l): 1.758 - 10.823
 
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 Fabulina fabula burrows in fine to medium sand and silty sand on the lower shore and in the shallow sublittoral. It burrows up to a depth of 10 cm and lies horizontally on its left valve, extending its inhalant siphon to the sediment surface.
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Conservation

Conservation Status

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Wikipedia

Angulus fabula

Angulus fabula is a species of marine bivalve mollusc in the family Tellinidae. It is found off the coasts of north west Europe where it lives buried in sandy sediments.

Bivalves are molluscs with a body compressed between two usually similar shell valves joined by an elastic ligament. There are teeth at the edge of the shell and the animal has a muscular foot, gills, siphons, mouth and gut and is surrounded by a mantle inside the shell.

Description[edit]

The shell of Angulus fabula is brittle and flattened and grows to a length of twenty millimeters. The outline is oval but the shell is asymmetric with the hinge slightly off centre and the beaks slightly behind the midline. The anterior dorsal margin curves gently and the anterior margin is rounded. The posterior dorsal margin is straighter and the posterior margin is somewhat pointed. The periostracum is transparent and glossy and the shell is white with tinges of yellow or brown. There is a sculpture of fine concentric lines on both valves and some faint radial ribs on the right valve only.[2] The inner surface of the valves is white, sometimes tinted with yellow or orange.[1] The mantle is white with a fringe of tentacles and the gills are unequal in size.[3]

Distribution[edit]

A. fabula occurs off the coasts of north west Europe and Morocco and in the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea. It is found from low water level to a depth of about forty metres. In a study off the Belgian coast in 2006, this species was found at a maximum density of over a thousand individuals per square metre.[4]

Biology[edit]

A. fabula burrows in clean or slightly muddy sand and has a large foot and two long siphons which it extends to the surface of the sediment. The longer one gropes around for organic debris which is drawn down to the mollusc through this siphon while water is expelled through the other.[5] It is both a deposit and a filter feeder.[6]

Individual molluscs are either male or female and gametes are liberated into the water table during spring and summer. The larvae are free swimming and form part of the zooplankton for from 11 to 30 days. Maturity is reached at a size of about 10 millimetres after 1 to 2 years, and the lifespan is up to 5 years.[6]

Ecology[edit]

The closely related species, Angulus tenuis is found over the same distribution range but the two are not usually in competition as A. tenuis occurs from the middle shore level to a depth of about seven metres.[5]

In the sandy sea bed that it favours, A. fabula is often found in association with the sea potato, Echinocardium cordatum, and the bivalve molluscs Ensis ensis and Chamelea gallina.[7]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b World Register of Marine Species
  2. ^ Marine Bivalve Shells of the British Isles.
  3. ^ Marine Species Identification Portal
  4. ^ Degraer S., J. Wittoeck, W. Appeltans, K. Cooreman, T. Deprez, H. Hillewaert, K. Hostens, J. Mees, E. Vanden Berghe & M. Vincx (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1. 164 pp.
  5. ^ a b Barrett, J. H. and C. M. Yonge, 1958. Collins Pocket Guide to the Sea Shore. P. 161. Collins, London
  6. ^ a b Salzwedel, H., 1979. Reproduction, growth, mortality and variations in abundance and biomass of Tellina fabula (Bivalvia) in the German Bight in 1975/1976. Veroffentlichungen des Instituts fur Meeresforschung in Bremerhaven, 18, 111-202.
  7. ^ Elements of Marine Ecology
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