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Anomalocardia brasiliana is a common bivalve mollusc in shallow, low energy marine environments of the West Atlantic. It ranges from the Caribbean to Uruguay and constitutes an important food item for coastal communities living along the Brazilian coast. The species lives shallowly buried in the sediment, feeds on suspended particles brought into the mantle cavity and trapped by its gills, and has a life span that rarely exceeds 2 years. The shell is triangular, commonly with a produced posterior end. The sexes are separate, fertilization is external and larval development is planktic and rapid.