The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Backeljau, T. 1986. Lijst van de recente mariene mollusken van België [List of the recent marine molluscs of Belgium]. Koninklijk Belgisch Instituut voor Natuurwetenschappen: Brussels, Belgium. 106 pp.
  • Barnes, R.D., (1980). Invertebrate Zoology, 4th ed. Philadelphia: Holt-Saunders International Editions. External link.
  • Beaumont, A.R., Newman, P.B., Mills, D.K., Waldock, M.J., Miller, D. & Waite, M.E., (1989). Sandy-substrate microcosm studies on tributyl tin (TBT) toxicity to marine organisms. Scientia Marina, 53, 737-743. External link.
  • Bouchet P.,Gofas S. & Rosenberg G. (2013). WoRMS Mollusca: World Marine Mollusca database (version Feb 2013). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Bryan, G.W. & Gibbs, P.E., (1983). Heavy metals from the Fal estuary, Cornwall: a study of long-term contamination by mining waste and its effects on estuarine organisms. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. [Occasional Publication, no. 2.] External link.
  • Bryan, G.W., (1984). Pollution due to heavy metals and their compounds. In Marine Ecology: A Comprehensive, Integrated Treatise on Life in the Oceans and Coastal Waters, vol. 5. Ocean Management, part 3, (ed. O. Kinne), pp.1289-1431. New York: John Wiley & Sons. External link.
  • Crisp, D.J. (ed.), (1964). The effects of the severe winter of 1962-63 on marine life in Britain. Journal of Animal Ecology, 33, 165-210. External link.
  • Crompton, T.R., (1997). Toxicants in the aqueous ecosystem. New York: John Wiley & Sons. External link.
  • Eno, N.C., Clark, R.A. & Sanderson, W.G. (ed.), (1997). Non-native marine species in British waters: a review and directory. Peterborough: Joint Nature Conservation Committee. External link.
  • Fibuier, Louis. 1868. Ocean World : Being a Descriptive History of the Sea and its Living Inhabitants. New York : D. Appleton & Co.; Fig. 174
  • Fish, J.D. & Fish, S., (1996). A student's guide to the seashore. Second edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. External link.
  • Gofas, S. (2015). Pholas dactylus Linnaeus, 1758. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at
  • Gofas, S.; Le Renard, J.; Bouchet, P. 2001. Mollusca, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, 50:
  • Hayward, P., Nelson-Smith, T. & Shields, C., (1996). Collins pocket guide. Sea shore of Britain and northern Europe. London: HarperCollins. External link.
  • Hayward, P.J. & Ryland, J.S. (ed.), (1995b). Handbook of the marine fauna of North-West Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press. External link.
  • Herdman, William A. 1923. Founders of Oceanography and Their Work : an Introduction to the Science of the Sea. London, England : Edward Arnold & Co.; Fig. 12
  • Howson, C.M. & Picton, B.E. (ed.), (1997). The species directory of the marine fauna and flora of the British Isles and surrounding seas. Belfast: Ulster Museum. [Ulster Museum publication, no. 276.] External link.
  • Huber M. 2010. Compendium of bivalves. A full-color guide to 3,300 of the world’s marine bivalves. A status on Bivalvia after 250 years of research. Hackenheim: ConchBooks. 901
  • JNCC (Joint Nature Conservation Committee), (1999). Marine Environment Resource Mapping And Information Database (MERMAID): Marine Nature Conservation Review Survey Database. [on-line], External link.
  • Kilburn, R.N. & Rippey, E. 1982. Sea Shells of Southern Africa. Macmillan South Africa, Johannesburg, xi + 249 pp.
  • Knight, J.H., (1984). Studies on the biology and biochemistry of Pholas dactylus L.. , PhD thesis. London, University of London. External link.
  • Knight, R. & Thorne, J., (1982). Syncilancistrumina elegantissima (Scuticociliatida: Thigmotrichina), a new genus and species of ciliated protozoon from Pholas dactylus (Mollusca: Bivalvia), the common piddock. Protistologica, 18, 53-66. External link.
  • Linnaeus, C. (1758). Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentius Salvius: Holmiae. ii, 824 pp.
  • Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentius Salvius: Holmiae. ii, 824 pp.
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
  • Pallasmaa, J. 1995. Animal architecture. Helsinki: Museum of Finnish Architecture. 126 p.
  • Pholas dactylus
  • Pollock, L.W. 1998. A practical guide to the marine animals of northeastern North America. Rutgers University Press. New Brunswick, New Jersey & London. 367 pp.
  • Seaward, D.R., (1982). Sea area atlas of the marine molluscs of Britain and Ireland. Peterborough: Nature Conservancy Council. External link.
  • Seaward, D.R., (1990). Distribution of marine molluscs of north west Europe. Peterborough: Nature Conservancy Council. External link.
  • Seaward, D.R., (1993). Additions and amendments to the Distribution of the marine Molluscs of north west Europe. , Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough. [JNCC Report no. 165]. External link.
  • Tebble, N., (1976). British Bivalve Seashells. A Handbook for Identification, 2nd ed. Edinburgh: British Museum (Natural History), Her Majesty's Stationary Office. External link.
  • Turner, R.D., (1954). The family Pholadidae in the western Atlantic and the eastern Pacific Part 1 - Pholadinae. Johnsonia, 3, 1-64. External link.
  • Vine, P. 1986. Red Sea Invertebrates. Immel Publishing, London. 224 pp.
  • Waldock, M.J. & Thain, J.E., (1983). Shell thickening in Crassostrea gigas: organotin antifouling or sediment induced? Marine Pollution Bulletin, 14, 411-415. External link.
  • Wood, C., (1984). Sussex sublittoral survey. Selsey Bill to Beachy Head. (Contractor: Marine Conservation Society, South East Branch), unpublished report to Nature Conservancy Council, CSD Report, no. 527. External link.


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