Overview

Distribution

Range Description

This species occurs over a wide geographic area in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea (Tsuchiya 2009). Its range includes the northern Sargasso Sea, Bahama Islands and northern Brazil, and stretches from France and the west coast of Africa to Angola in the east Atlantic (Tsuchiya 2009). The type locality is off Italy in the Mediterranean Sea (Young et al. 1998).
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology

This species appears to undergo diel vertical migrations in the Atlantic, as juveniles have been collected between 700 and 800 m during the day and between 20 and 60 m in depth at night, and appears to be associated with distant-neritic waters (Tsuchiya 2009). It is abundant off northwest Africa where it inhabits slope waters between 200 and 400 m in depth (Laptikhovsky 1999). This species is preyed upon by a range of marine mammals and finfish including the blackmouth catshark, Galeus melastomus. Enoploteuthids generally occur in mid-depths in the ocean and occasionally over the continental shelf (Norman 2003). Females lack nidamental glands but have enlarged oviducal glands which are used to produce strings of a jelly-like substance into which the eggs are laid individually (Norman 2003). Ovarian oocyte diameter averaged 0.8 to 0.85 mm in eleven maturing and mature females with mantle lengths ranging from 37 to 43 mm taken off the northwest coast of Africa (Laptikhovsky 1999). The total number of oocytes in the ovaries of the same eleven individuals ranged from 10,000 to 26,000 (Laptikhovsky 1999). Its oocyte length frequency distribution suggests they may spawn intermittently in this region (Laptikhovsky 1999). The average diameter and total number of oocytes was estimated to be 1.01 mm and 26,584 in 24 female specimens (26 to 47 mm in mantle length) from the Aegean Sea (Salman and Laptikhovsky 2005).


Systems
  • Marine
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Depth range based on 191 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 153 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 16 - 2587
  Temperature range (°C): 3.021 - 25.874
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.366 - 36.840
  Salinity (PPS): 34.176 - 37.543
  Oxygen (ml/l): 2.280 - 6.225
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.063 - 2.402
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.774 - 25.922

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 16 - 2587

Temperature range (°C): 3.021 - 25.874

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.366 - 36.840

Salinity (PPS): 34.176 - 37.543

Oxygen (ml/l): 2.280 - 6.225

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.063 - 2.402

Silicate (umol/l): 0.774 - 25.922
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Abralia veranyi

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There is 1 barcode sequence available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is the sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen.

Other sequences that do not yet meet barcode criteria may also be available.

ACACTTTATTTTATTTTTGGTATCTGATCAGGATTACTAGGAACATCCTTA---AGATTAATAATTCGTACTGAGTTGGGTCAACCAGGCTCTTTACTTAACGAT---GATCAACTTTACAATGTGGTAGTAACTGCACATGCATTTATTATAATTTTCTTTATAGTAATACCAATTATAATTGGAGGATTTGGGAACTGATTAGTTCCATTAATA---TTAGGAGCTCCTGATATAGCTTTTCCTCGAATAAATAATATAAGATTTTGATTATTACCCCCATCCTTAACTATACTACTAGCATCCTCAGCTGTGGAAAGAGGGGCAGGGACAGGATGAACTGTTTATCCTCCTTTATCTAGAAACTTATCTCATGCAGGACCTTCCGTTGACTTA---GCTATTTTTTCTCTACACTTAGCAGGTGTTTCTTCTATTTTAGGAGCAATTAATTTTATTACAACTATCTTAAATATACGATGAGAAGGACTACAAATAGAACGTTTACCTTTATTT
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Abralia veranyi

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2014

Assessor/s
Barratt, I. & Allcock, L.

Reviewer/s
Young, R., Vecchione, M. & Böhm, M.

Contributor/s
Duncan, C. & Carrete-Vega, G.

Justification
Abralia veranyi is an oceanic species which has a wide geographic distribution, making it less susceptible to human impact. It has therefore been assessed as Least Concern. However, further research is recommended in order to determine the precise distribution, population dynamics, life history and ecology, and potential threat processes affecting this species.
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Population

Population
There is no population information available for this species.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
The threats to this species are not known.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for this species. Further research is recommended in order to determine the precise distribution, population dynamics, life history and ecology, and potential threat processes affecting this species.
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Wikipedia

Abralia veranyi

Abralia veranyi is a species of squid in the family Enoploteuthidae. Common names include the eye-flash squid, Verany's enope squid and the midwater squid. It is found in the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. It undergoes a daily vertical migration from deep waters to near the surface.

Description[edit]

The midwater squid is a small species with a mantle length of about 4 centimetres (1.6 in). It has a fin, four pairs of arms and two long tentacles. The tips of the arms bear four rows of suckers and there are three hooks on the club of each tentacle. The male has the fourth arm on the left modified into a hectocotylus. This is used to store spermatophores and transfer them into the mantle of the female during mating.[3] The underside of the squid bears about 550 light-producing organs called photophores. These are arranged in transverse rows each consisting of 4 to 6 large ones with many small ones in between. There are two large and three medium-sized photophores below each of the large eyes.[4][5]

Distribution[edit]

This species was first described from the Mediterranean Sea but is also found across much of the tropical and subtropical Atlantic Ocean. The range extends from France and the West African coast to the Bear Seamount off New England, the Bahamas, the Gulf of Mexico, the Sargasso Sea and northern Brazil. It has been found at depths of 700 to 800 metres (2,300 to 2,600 ft) in the daytime but only 20 to 60 metres (66 to 197 ft) at night.[5]

In 1921, a resident of Funchal, Madeira, Senor de Noronha, gave an count of what is believed to be the first recording of the species from the Atlantic Ocean: [3]

The cephalopod in question has been captured by myself in the sheltered quay of this city of Funchal, called the Quay of Pontinha, during the months of July, August, and September. Almost every year one may capture them in this harbor during the night where they approach the steps of debarcation, following the lighting of the electric lamps of the above mentioned steps. With a certain alacrity one may catch them with the aid of a little wire basket, because these animals come almost to the surface of the water, being distinguishable by the brilliancy of a bluish phosphorescence which they cause to gleam from their eyes.

Biology[edit]

The midwater squid remains at great depths where no light penetrates during the day, in order to avoid predators. However, it must rise to near the surface at night to feed on the small invertebrates that constitute its prey.[4]

The midwater squid has photophores on its underside. It is thought that their purpose is to make the squid less visible as a dark silhouette when viewed from below in dim light. The bioluminescence produced provides counter-illumination, a form of camouflage, which helps to break up the squid's outline.[6] The squid monitors the temperature of the water as a guide to regulating the emission spectra of the light it needs to emit to closely mimic the scintillating surface of the sea. In cold seas it mimics the blueish colour that sunlight produces at these depths and in warmer water, greener, moonlight colours are produced.[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Barratt, I. & Allcock, L. (2014). "Abralia veranyi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 28 August 2014. 
  2. ^ Gofas, Serge (2010). "Abralia veranyi (Rüppell, 1844)". World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 2012-04-25. 
  3. ^ a b A note on the occurrence and habits of a luminous squid Abralia veranyi at Madeira S. Stillman Berry. Retrieved 2012-04-25.
  4. ^ a b c Counterillumination Retrieved 2012-04-25.
  5. ^ a b Abralia veranyi (Ruppell 1844) The Tree of Life Web Project. Retrieved 2012-04-25.
  6. ^ Midwater Squid, Abralia veranyi Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 2012-04-25.
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