Overview

Brief Summary

Introduction

Grimalditeuthis bonplandi is very gelatinous and contains vesiculate tissue in the head, arms and mantle. It is generally Chiroteuthis-like in appearance (long neck, body and fin shape) but is distinguished by subequal arms and fusion of each funnel-mantle locking apparatus. Only scattered chromatophores are present, and the eyes are small. This species is infrequently captured but seems to have a world-wide distribution in tropical to temperate seas.

Diagnosis

A chiroteuthid ...

  • without suckers on clubs.
  • with funnel fused to mantle at each funnel-mantle lock.
  • without photophores except on arm tips in mature (?) females.

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Comprehensive Description

Nomenclature

Joubin (1898) described a second species, G. richardi based on the presence of photophores on the tips of the arms. Pfeffer (1912) synonomized the two and this was supported by Young (1972) and Nesis (1982).

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Characteristics

  1. Arms
    1. Arms approximately subequal in length, gelatinous.
    2. Sucker base with three conical papillae (unique character).
    3. Protective membranes absent.

      Figure. Oral view of large arm III sucker, stalk and base, with inner ring at right, G. bonplandi, 89 mm ML, female, off Southern California. Drawing from Young (1972).

  2. Tentacles
    1. Club divided into two portions by symmetrical protective membranes.
    2. Suckers absent from clubs.

      Figure. Tentacle-clubs of G. bomplandi. A - Aboral view. B - Oral view. a single intact tentacle was found on a specimen taken from the stomach of the fish Alepisaurus ferox (courtesy of Lourdes Burgess). The tentacle club lacked suckers and showed no indication that suckers or sucker stalks were ever present as the skin was intact. Drawings by A. D. Hart.

  3. Head
    1. Olfactory organ located lateral to base of funnel (i.e., immediately anterior to collar at posterior end of neck).

    2. Beaks: Descriptions can be found here: Lower beak; upper beak.

  4. Funnel
    1. Funnel valve present.
    2. Funnel fused to mantle at each funnel-mantle locking-apparatus (head not fused to mantle in nuchal region).

  5. Photophores
    1. Absent accept at the arm tips of mature (?) females (See "More details ...").

  6. Tail
    1. Tail retained in adults with two fin-like "floatation devices" (= secondary fins) arise from tail.

Comments

More details of the description can be found here.

The function of the suckerless club is unknown. Tentacle stalks are very thin, fragile and almost always broken off in capture.

This species also has a very characteristic pattern of chromatophores on the head. A line of chromatophores passes across the ventral surface of the head between the anterior ends of eyes; another line runs along the neck from each olfactory papilla anteriorly to each eye, then anterior to each eye along the brachial pillar, terminating at the base of the arms.

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Distribution

Vertical distribution

 

A small number of captures off Hawaii (Young 1978) included three small squid from the upper 350 m that probably had not descended from the shallow paralarval habitat and five squid from depths greater than 700 m.   

 
 

Figure. Vertical distribution chart of G. bonplandi, Hawaiian waters. Captures were made with both open and opening/closing trawls. Bars - Fishing depth-range of opening/closing trawl. Circle - Modal fishing depth for either trawl. Blue color - Night captures. Yellow color - Day captures. Chart modified from Young (1978).  

  

Geographical distribution

 

The type locality is 29° N and 39° W in the North Atlantic. It is known from the tropical and subtropical North Atlantic and the tropical and temperate North Pacific (Nesis, 1982).  

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Ecology

Habitat

Known from seamounts and knolls
  • Stocks, K. 2009. Seamounts Online: an online information system for seamount biology. Version 2009-1. World Wide Web electronic publication.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

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meso-bathypelagic
  • UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

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Depth range based on 18 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 17 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 30 - 3008
  Temperature range (°C): 2.617 - 22.330
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.158 - 35.877
  Salinity (PPS): 34.757 - 36.537
  Oxygen (ml/l): 2.604 - 6.258
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.034 - 2.279
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.953 - 27.953

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 30 - 3008

Temperature range (°C): 2.617 - 22.330

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.158 - 35.877

Salinity (PPS): 34.757 - 36.537

Oxygen (ml/l): 2.604 - 6.258

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.034 - 2.279

Silicate (umol/l): 0.953 - 27.953
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Life History

The doratopsis was first described by Chun (1910) as Doratopsis sagitta. A growth series of the paralarvae was described by Young (1991), and can be found below. The early doratopsis stage is similar to that of other species in the family. The older doratopsis shows many of the features of the subadult including the distinctive chromatophore pattern and the small eyes.

  1. At sizes larger than 9 mm ML Grimalditeuthis doratopsis paralarvae are easily identified by:
    1. Small eye size.
    2. Position of the olfactory papillae opposite the base of the funnel.
    3. Distinctive chromatophore pattern on the head (same as subadult pattern).
    4. Separation of optic lobes from brain.
    5. Anterior position of the superior buccal and brachial lobes.
  2. At sizes smaller than 9 mm paralarvae are identified by a combination of:
    1. A long brachial pillar with a centrally located esophagus.
    2. Number of chromatophores on the funnel shoulders and the ventral head posterior to the eyes.
    3. Just slightly elongate eye-shape.
    4. Shape of the vesiculate area on the posterior end of the mantle (nearly flat anteriorly).

    Figure. Paralarvae of G. bonplandi, Hawaiian waters. Thumbnail - Ventral view of the three paralarvae showing relative sizes. A - Side view of the head showing the long brachial pillar and the central position of the esophagus. B-D - Dorsal and ventral views of paralarvae at three different sizes. E - Oral view of the tentacular club. Proximal to the typical doratopsid club there is a scattered arrangement of suckers which contrasts with the denser and more orderly arrangement of presumptive adult clubs in advanced paralarvae of Chiroteuthis and Asperoteuthis. Scale bars are 1 mm. Drawings from Young (1991)

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Grimalditeuthis bonplandi

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 2 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

TTATTAGGAACTTCTTTA---AGACTTATAATTCGTACTGAACTAGGTCAACCTGGCTCTTTACTAAACGAT---GATCAACTTTATAATGTAGTTGTAACTGCCCACGGGTTTATTATAATTTTCTTTTTAGTCATGCCTATCATAATTGGAGGATTTGGTAATTGACTAGTACCTTTAATA---CTAGGAGCACCAGATATAGCATTCCCGCGAATAAATAATATAAGCTTCTGGTTACTACCTCCATCTTTAACTCTTCTACTAGCTTCATCTGCCGTAGAAAGAGGAGCCGGAACCGGCTGAACAGTTTACCCCCCTTTATCTAGAAATCTTTCTCATGCTGGTCCTTCAGTAGACCTA---GCAATCTTTTCTCTACATTTAGCTGGTGTTTCCTCCATTTTAGGGGCAATTAACTTCATTACCACAATTTTAAATATACGATGAGAAGGATTACAAATAGAACGTCTTCCTTTATTTGTATGATCCGTATTTATTACCGCAATTCTCCTACTACTATCACTACCTGTTCTAGCAGGA---GCAATTACTATACTTTTAACAGACCGTAATTTTAACACTACCTTTTTTGATCCTAGGGGAGGAGGAGACCCTATTTTATAC------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------C
-- end --

Download FASTA File

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Grimalditeuthis bonplandi

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Wikipedia

Grimalditeuthis bonplandi

Grimalditeuthis bonplandi is a squid named after the Grimaldi family, reigning house of Monaco. Prince Albert I of Monaco was an amateur teuthologist who pioneered the study of deep sea squids by collecting the 'precious regurgitations' of sperm whales. The specific name bonplandi refers to the French scientist Aimé Bonpland.

Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

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