Gonatus pyros is a small gonatid. A spent female measured 125 mm ML (SBMNH no. 61050). Nesis (1982/87) states that some individuals are known to be up to 160 mm ML. G. pyros is distinctive in being the only gonatid known to possess photophores.
A Gonatus with ...
- a large photophore on the ventral surface of each eyeball.
- Total of 29-33 hooks and suckers present on proximal half of each arm I-III; squid >34 mm GL with 36-41 suckers on proximal half of each arm IV.
- Clubs 20-25% of GL.
- Club dactylus with 7-8 irregular series at proximal end, decreasing to 4 series in mid-dactylus.
- Club ventral-marginal zone with 3, sometimes 4, series of suckers in central region all nearly same size.
- Club dorsal-marginal zone with 3 irregular series dorsal to large central hook.
- Club medial zone with large central hook; distal hook present, occasionally joined by an enlarged sucker with a large tooth; proximal series with usually 3-4 small hooks, occasionally preceeded by a series of suckers. Proximal hooks decrease in size toward club base
- Total number of suckers (excluding terminal pad and medial zone) on tentacular club: about 151-184.
- Median region of tentacular stalk between marginal series with a single, occasionally double and slightly irregular series of sucker adjacent to the ventral-marginal series of the stalk. Lenth variable but usually reaches 3/4 of marginal series length. Medial suckers number between 50-125.
Figure. Oral view of the tentacle of G. pyros. Top - Distal region of tentacle, 35? mm GL. Middle - Enlargement of club from top figure. Drawings from Young (1972). Bottom - Distal region of tentacle, 55 mm ML, preserved. Photograph by R. Young.
- Large, somewhat oval photophore present on ventral surface of each eye.
Figure. Ventral view of the head and eyes of G. pyros showing ocular photophore. Left - Eyelid folded back to reveal photophore, preserved, 55 mm ML, immature female. Insert - Drawing of eye and photophore from Young (1972). Right - Fresh squid witht the left eye protruding showing the white ocular photophore. Photograph by T. Kubodera. Note the peculiar surface of the photophore which seems to have many small pores.
Type locality: 33°37'N, 118°26'W, eastern North Pacific off Southern California. G. pyros is broadly distributed in the central and eastern North Pacific.
Figure. Distribution of G. pyros. Dark region indicates known range; light areas indicate estimated range. Chart modified from Okutani, et al. (1988).
Catalog Number: USNM 727399
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Sex/Stage: ; juvenile
Preparation: Alcohol (Ethanol)
Year Collected: 1961
Locality: Southern Area, California, United States, North Pacific Ocean
Depth (m): 667 to 667
Vessel: Velero IV R/V
- Paratype: Young, R. 1972. Smithson. Contrib. Zool. 97: 43-46, pls. 13,14,17.
Habitat and Ecology
- UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms
Life History and Behavior
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Barcode data: Gonatus pyros
Below is the sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.
See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen.
Other sequences that do not yet meet barcode criteria may also be available.
-- end --
Download FASTA File
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Gonatus pyros
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!