Overview

Brief Summary

Introduction

H. reversa is one of the most common species of histioteuthids in the North Atlantic. Its range extends into the eastern South Atlantic. The length of the gladius in the largest recorded female is 183 mm (Voss, 1969). Like many histioteuthids, major morphological changes occur at sexual maturity. In this species the females become much more elongate and develop an additional array of photophores.

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Comprehensive Description

Nomenclature

H. elongata (Voss and Voss, 1962), described from a mature female, is a junior synonym (Voss, et al., 1998).

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Characteristics

  1. Head
    1. Beaks: Descriptions can be found here: Lower beak; upper beak.

  2. Photophores
    1. Large, compound photophores with posteriorly directed reflectors.

      Figure. Anteroventral mantle photophores of H. reversa, 29 mm ML, central North Atlantic, R/V G.O. SARS, MarEco cruise. Arrow points to the posterior reflector of one of the photophores. Photograph by R. Young.

    2. Arms IV with 4 longitudinal series of photophores on arm base (3 series of large photophores, dorsal series of small photophores

      Figure. Ventral view of the base of arm IV of H. reversa, 29 mm ML, central North Atlantic, R/V G.O. SARS, MarEco cruise. Arrows point to the dorsal series of small photophores. Photograph by R. Young.

    3. Terminal group of large photophores on arms absent.

Comments

More details of the description can be found here.

Species of the reversa-group are distinguished by the following characters:

  1. Compound photophores
    1. Large and small photophores intermixed on ventral surface of mantle .
    2. 18 photophores (17 large and 1 small) around right eyelid.
  2. Beak
    1. Weakly developed median ridge on each lateral wall.
  3. Tubercles
    1. Absent.

H. reversa is most easily separated from other members of the reversa group by (1) the arrangement of photophores on arms IV (H. atlantica - 4 series, dorsal series of mixed sizes; H reversa - 4 series, dorsal series of small sizes; H. eltaninae - 3 series) and (2) from H. atlantica by the absence of simple, arm-tip photophores and from H. eltaninae by the short connective complex in their spermatophores and the presence of posterior reflectors (not described for H. eltaninae) on compound photophores.

The above information is from Voss (1969) and Voss, et al. (1998).

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Distribution

Geographical distribution

H. reversa occurs throughout much of the Atlantic Ocean but is absent from the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico and the South Subtropical Region. Voss, et al. (1998) suggest that the abundance of H. reversa near slopes and submarine topography is related to a preference for high productivity waters.

Figure. Distribution chart of H. reversa. Modified from Voss, et al. (1998).

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Physical Description

Type Information

Holotype for Stigmatoteuthis verrilli Pfeffer, 1912
Catalog Number: USNM 729738
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Sex/Stage: ; larvae
Preparation: Alcohol (Ethanol)
Year Collected: 1883
Locality: Martha's Vineyard, East, Massachusetts, United States, North Atlantic Ocean
Depth (m): 1657 to 1657
Vessel: Albatross R/V
  • Holotype: Pfeffer, G. 1912. Ergeb. Plank.-Exped. Humb.-Stift. 2: 285-286.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Holotype for Calliteuthis reversa Verrill, 1880
Catalog Number: USNM 574849
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Sex/Stage: female;
Preparation: Isopropyl Alcohol
Year Collected: 1880
Locality: 200 Miles Off Coast, New Jersey, United States, North Atlantic Ocean
Depth (m): 668 to 668
Vessel: Fish Hawk R/V
  • Holotype: Verrill, A. 1880. Am. J. Sci. 20(41): 393.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Paratype for Calliteuthis elongata Voss & Voss, 1962
Catalog Number: USNM 78083
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Sex/Stage: female;
Preparation: Isopropyl Alcohol
Year Collected: 1886
Locality: Long Island, New York, United States, North Atlantic Ocean
Vessel: Albatross R/V
  • Paratype: Voss, N. & Voss, G. 1962. Bull. Mar. Sci. Gulf Caribb. 12(2): 184-191, figs. 4 + 6.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Ecology

Habitat

epi-mesopelagic
  • UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

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Depth range based on 114 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 102 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 4.5 - 4332
  Temperature range (°C): 2.336 - 17.269
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.302 - 36.323
  Salinity (PPS): 34.017 - 38.954
  Oxygen (ml/l): 1.302 - 6.259
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.115 - 2.537
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.352 - 36.772

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 4.5 - 4332

Temperature range (°C): 2.336 - 17.269

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.302 - 36.323

Salinity (PPS): 34.017 - 38.954

Oxygen (ml/l): 1.302 - 6.259

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.115 - 2.537

Silicate (umol/l): 1.352 - 36.772
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Life History

This series of drawings shows the remarkable elongation in shape of the female at maturity and the maturity-related increase in numbers of simple photophores (dark spots) on the mantle (Voss, et al., 1998)

Figure. Ventral views of growth stages of H. reversa. Top - 39 mm ML, same as title illustration. Middle - 85 mm GL, mature male, 43° 20'N, 59° 27'W. Bottom - 183 mm ML, mature female, 39° 21'N, 70° 41'W. Drawings from Voss, et al. (1998).

The drawings below show the abundance of simple, dark photophores on the head of mature males. To the left is a ventral view, 89 mm ML and to the right is a dorsal view, 107 mm GL (Voss, et al., 1998). These dark photophores are apparent in photographs of a mature male.

Figure. Ventral and dorsal views of the head of a mature male H. reversa. Left - Ventral view, 89 mm ML, 10° 52'N, 22° 09'W. Right - Dorsal view of the head of a mature male, 107 mm GL, 42° 55'N, 62° 13'W. Drawings from Voss, et al., 1998.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Histioteuthis reversa

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 2 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

ACTTTATACTTTATCTTTGGAATTTGAGCCGGTTTACTAGGAACTTCACTA---AGATTAATAATTCGTACAGAGCTTGGACAACCAGGTTCACTACTAAATGAT---GATCAACTATACAATGTTGTAGTTACTGCTCATGGATTCATTATAATTTTTTTTCTAGTTATACCAATTATAATTGGAGGATTTGGTAATTGATTAGTTCCTTTAATA---CTAGGGGCCCCTGATATAGCTTTCCCCCGTATAAATAATATAAGATTTTGACTACTCCCACCTTCTTTAACCTTATTACTCACTTCTTCTGCTGTAGAAAGAGGAGCAGGAACAGGATGAACAGTATACCCTCCTTTATCTAGAAACTTATCACATGCAGGACCTTCAGTAGATCTT---GCTATTTTTTCTCTCCATTTAGCAGGAGTATCWTCAATTTTAGGAGCAATTAATTTTATTACAACAATTCTAAATATACGTTGAGAAGGGCTTCAAATAGAACGAGTACCCCTTTTTGCATGATCTGTATTTATTACAGCTATTCTTTTACTACTATCTTTACCAGTTCTGGCAGGA---GCAATTACAATATTACTTACAGACCGTAATTTTAATACTACTTTTTTTGACCCCAGAGGAGGGGGTGACCCTATTCTATATCAACATTTA
-- end --

Download FASTA File

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Histioteuthis reversa

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Wikipedia

Histioteuthis reversa

Histioteuthis reversa, commonly known as the reverse jewel squid or the elongate jewel squid, is a species of cock-eyed squid, so called because the eyes are dissimilar. It occurs at moderate depths in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea and is also known from the Indian Ocean.

Description[edit]

Histioteuthis reversa grows to a mantle length of about 19 cm (7.5 in). The head bears four pairs of robust arms, a pair of tentacles and two unequal-sized eyes and the main body mass is enclosed in the mantle. The arms are less than one and a half times the length of the mantle. The outer arms are not joined to each other by a web and the inner arms are connected by a vestigial web remnant. The suckers on the arms are globular, usually with teeth on the margin, and the suckers on the terminal portion of the tentacles are in five or six rows, with larger suckers in the central rows. The mantle is cup-shaped and elongates considerably in females when they mature. The fins are a third to a half the length of the mantle and roughly half its width. The ventral (under) surface of the mantle has a complex arrangement of large and small compound light-emitting photophores, and seventeen large and one small photophore surround the right eye. In front of the left eye there are seven large photophores and the eye is ringed by ten to fourteen small ones.[2][3]

Distribution[edit]

Histioteuthis reversa is native to the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. It is mostly found in the northern hemisphere but also occurs off the coast of Namibia and South Africa. The northern limit of its range is the Newfoundland and the seas south of Iceland at 52° North. It does not occur in the Gulf of Mexico and is uncommon in the Caribbean Sea. It has been recorded in the southern Indian Ocean. It is found in the upper waters of the open sea,[4] often at depths of between 600 and 800 m (1,969 and 2,625 ft),[5] and frequently in the vicinity of seamounts and other undersea features, perhaps because primary production is greater in these areas.[2][3]

Ecology[edit]

Little is known of the behaviour and ecology of this squid but it seems to breed over the continental slope as juveniles in the size range 2 to 4 cm (0.8 to 1.6 in) have been found there. Adults are eaten by various cetaceans including sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus), pygmy sperm whales (Kogia breviceps)[4] and Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus), a fact confirmed by examining the stomach contents of stranded animals among which the indigestible beaks of the squids are found.[5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gofas, Serge (2013). "Histioteuthis reversa (Verrill, 1880)". World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 2014-03-16. 
  2. ^ a b Young, Richard E.; Vecchione, Michael. "Histioteuthis reversa". Tree of Life Web Project. Retrieved 2014-03-17. 
  3. ^ a b D. Boltovskoy (ed.). "Histioteuthis reversa". Zooplankton of the South Atlantic Ocean. Marine Species Identification Portal. Retrieved 2014-03-17. 
  4. ^ a b Gibson, R. N.; Atkinson, R. J. A.; Gordon, J. D. M. (2009). Oceanography and Marine Biology - An Annual Review (Volume 47). CRC Press. p. 137. ISBN 9781420094220. 
  5. ^ a b Würtz, M.; Poggi, R.; Clarke, Malcolm R. (1992). "Cephalopods from the stomachs of a Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) from the Mediterranean". Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 72 (4): 861–867. doi:10.1017/S0025315400060094. 
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Source: Wikipedia

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