Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Trees, shrubs, suffrutices or lianes; branches sometimes with coiled tendrils (Gouania and Helinus). Stipules present, sometimes spiny. Leaves alternate (sometimes opposite or subopposite) or fasciculate, simple. Flowers bisexual or rarely unisexual, actinomorphic. Sepals (4-)5. Petals (4-)5 or 0. Disk usually present and well-developed. Ovary superior, subinferior or inferior, 2-4-locular. Fruit a drupe, capsule or schizocarp.
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© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

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Distribution

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Rhamnaceae Juss.:
Colombia (South America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., R. D. C. Ortiz, R. Callejas Posada & M. Merello. 2011. Flora de Antioquia. Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares, vol. 2. Listado de las Plantas Vasculares del Departamento de Antioquia. Pp. 1-939.   http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/100008595 External link.
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© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

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Ecology

Associations

Foodplant / sap sucker
Gonocerus acuteangulatus sucks sap of Rhamnaceae

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
                                        
Specimen Records:608Public Records:244
Specimens with Sequences:528Public Species:134
Specimens with Barcodes:518Public BINs:0
Species:224         
Species With Barcodes:211         
          
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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Barcode data

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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Locations of barcode samples

Collection Sites: world map showing specimen collection locations for Rhamnaceae

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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Wikipedia

Rhamnaceae

Rhamnaceae, the Buckthorn family, is a large family of flowering plants, mostly trees, shrubs and some vines.

The family contains 50-60 genera and approximately 870-900 species. Rhamnaceae have a worldwide distribution, but are more common in the subtropical and tropical regions. The earliest fossil evidence of Rhamnaceae is from the Eocene.

The simple leaves can be either alternate and spiraling, or opposite. Stipules are present. These leaves are modified into spines in many genera, in some (e.g. Paliurus spina-christi and Colletia cruciata) spectacularly so. Colletia stands out by having two axillary buds instead of one, one developing into a thorn, the other one into a shoot.

Bisexual flower of a Helinus species, with 5 sepals and 5 petals, and a yellow, annular nectary disk. The small, clawed petals embrace the stamens.

The flowers are radially symmetrical. There are 5 (sometimes 4) separate sepals and 5 (sometimes 4 or none) separate petals. The petals may be white, yellowish, greenish, pink or blue, and are small and inconspicuous in most genera, though in some (e.g. Ceanothus) the dense clusters of flowers are conspicuous. The 5 or 4 stamens are isomerous with the petals (i.e. one stamen opposite each petal). The ovary is superior, with 2 or 3 ovules (or one by abortion).

The fruits are mostly berries, fleshy drupes or nuts. Some are adapted to wind carriage, but most are dispersed by mammals and birds. Chinese jujube is the fruit of the jujube tree (Ziziphus zizyphus) and is a major fruit in China.

The American genus Ceanothus, which has several showy ornamental species, has nitrogen-fixing root nodules.

Economic uses of Rhamnaceae are chiefly as ornamental plants and as the source of many brilliant green and yellow dyes. The wood of Rhamnus was also the most favoured species to make charcoal for use in gunpowder before the development of modern propellants.

Genera[edit]

Tribe Ampelozizipheae
Tribe Bathiorhamneae
Tribe Colletieae
Tribe Doerpfeldieae
Tribe Gouanieae
Tribe Maesopsideae
Tribe Paliurieae
Tribe Phyliceae
Tribe Pomaderreae
Tribe Rhamneae
Tribe Ventilagineae
Incertae sedis

References[edit]

  1. ^ Walter S. Judd and Richard G. Olmstead (2004). "A survey of tricolpate (eudicot) phylogenetic relationships". American Journal of Botany 91 (10): 1627–1644. doi:10.3732/ajb.91.10.1627. PMID 21652313.  (full text )
  2. ^ "Family: Rhamnaceae Juss., nom. cons.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2003-01-17. Retrieved 2011-01-29. 
  3. ^ "Granitites". FloraBase. Department of Environment and Conservation, Government of Western Australia. 
  4. ^ "GRIN Genera of Rhamnaceae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United. Retrieved 2011-01-29. 
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