Habitat and Ecology
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
CITES Appendix II. It has been recorded from a number of protected areas, including five National Parks, one Strict Reserve, one Special Reserve, one Classified Forest and one Hunting Reserve (ZICOMA 1999). However, the protection of the marshes and grasslands that are vital for the species is relatively neglected compared with the protection of forest in Madagascar (René de Roland et al. 2004, 2009). The species is the subject of research into its population (René de Roland et al. 2009, L.- A. René de Roland in litt. 2006, Anon. 2007) and breeding biology (René de Roland et al. 2004). Conservation Actions Proposed
Carry out further surveys to confirm the total population size. Study the species's population dynamics (René de Roland et al. 2004). Obtain more accurate estimates of nesting success, and investigate relative importance of different mortality factors at nest. Reduce burning at key sites, particularly during the breeding season when fires destroy nests. Identify and establish protected areas to conserve key nesting sites. Improve protection of marshes and grasslands (René de Roland et al. 2009). Raise awareness amongst local communities about the impacts of fire (René de Roland et al. 2009). Study the species's ecology on Comoros(René de Roland et al. 2009).
The Malagasy harrier (Circus macrosceles) is a bird of prey belonging to the marsh harrier group of harriers. It inhabits Madagascar and the Comoro Islands in the Indian Ocean. It was formerly regarded as a subspecies of the Réunion harrier (C. maillardi) but is increasingly treated as a separate species. It is also known as the Madagascar harrier, Madagascar marsh harrier or Malagasy marsh harrier.
It is about 42–55 cm long; the female is up to 13% larger than the male. The male has a blackish back and a greyer head with dark streaks. The underparts and rump are whitish and the tail is grey with dark bars. The forewings and wingtips are blackish while the secondaries are grey with dark bars. Females are browner than the males.
The Réunion harrier is smaller and darker with shorter legs and shorter, more rounded wings. Males have a blacker head and plainer secondaries and tail.
Distribution and habitat
In Madagascar it is found in marshland and grassland across the island except for the south. It is generally scarce with the largest numbers in the north-west. It occurs from sea-level up to 1800 m. On the Comoros it is more often found in drier habitats and in forested areas. It has occurred on all four main islands but there are no recent records from Mayotte.
Its population size is uncertain but is estimated to be between 250 and 999 individuals. It is thought to be declining as a result of hunting and habitat destruction and is classed as vulnerable by BirdLife International.
It feeds mainly on birds such as the Madagascan partridge and also takes reptiles, amphibians, rodents and insects. It typically feeds by flying low over the ground and dropping down rapidly when it spots its prey. It will also hunt over the canopy of forests.
- Clarke, Roger (1995) The Marsh Harrier, Hamlyn, London.
- Ferguson-Lees, James & Christie, David A. (2001) Raptors of the World, Christopher Helm, London.
- Global Raptor Information Network (2008) Species account: Madagascar Marsh Harrier Circus macrosceles. Downloaded from http://www.globalraptors.org on 4 August 2008.
- Sinclair, Ian & Langrand, Olivier (1998) Birds of the Indian Ocean Islands, Struik, Cape Town.
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