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BiologyStudies on specific biological aspects of this fully terrestrial salamander are lacking. It is likely that life-history characteristics are similar to those of the subspecies Salamadra atra atra, in which one embryo develops in each of the two uteri. Gestation takes 3 years at altitudes of 1,400 to 1,700 metres. Young are born fully metamorphosed and terrestrial; they are around 4 - 5 cm long. These salamanders live for at least 10 years (1).