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Overview

Comprehensive Description

  • Ito, Yu, Barfod, Anders S. (2014): An updated checklist of aquatic plants of Myanmar and Thailand. Biodiversity Data Journal 2, 1019: 1019-1019, URL:http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.2.e1019
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Plazi

Source: Plazi.org

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Description

Annual or perennial herbs. Leaves all in radical rosettes (in ours), without stipules. Inflorescence a spike, terminating a scape (in ours). Flowers small, inconspicuous, subtended by a bract, usually 4-merous, sessile. Corolla gamopetalous, scarious, 3-4 lobed. Ovary superior. Fruit a capsule.
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© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

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Ecology

Associations

Foodplant / sap sucker
Dysaphis plantaginea sucks sap of live Plantaginaceae
Remarks: season: summer-

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
                                        
Specimen Records:1,662Public Records:952
Specimens with Sequences:1,511Public Species:165
Specimens with Barcodes:1,342Public BINs:0
Species:271         
Species With Barcodes:182         
          
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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Plantago truncata

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Barcode data

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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Locations of barcode samples

Collection Sites: world map showing specimen collection locations for Plantaginaceae

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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Wikipedia

Plantaginaceae

Plantaginaceae, the plantain family, is a family of flowering plants in the order Lamiales. The type genus is Plantago L..

In older classifications it used to be the only family of the order Plantaginales, but numerous phylogenetic studies, summarized by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group, have demonstrated that this taxon should be included within Lamiales.

Overview[edit]

The plantain family as traditionally circumscribed consisted of only three genera, Bougueria, Littorella, and Plantago. However phylogenetic research has indicated that Plantaginaceae s.s. (s.s. = sensu stricto, in the strict sense) were nested within Scrophulariaceae (but forming a group that did not include the type genus of that family, Scrophularia). Although Veronicaceae (1782) is the oldest family name for this group, Plantaginaceae (1789) is a conserved name under the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN) and thus has priority over any earlier family name for a family including Plantago. Furthermore, the ICBN does not consider family names published before 1789 to be names eligible for conservation, thus ruling out Veronicaceae. The name Antirrhinaceae has been proposed for conservation over Plantaginaceae. In the meantime, the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group has accepted the name Plantaginaceae. However, Olmstead (2003) has chosen to use the name Veronicaceae.

Plantaginaceae s.l. (s.l. = sensu lato, in the broad sense) are a diverse, cosmopolitan family, occurring mostly in temperate zones. The group consists of herbs, shrubs and also a few aquatic plants with roots (such as the genus Callitriche). Being so diverse, the circumscription of this family is difficult to establish.[3]

The leaves are spiral to opposite and simple to compound. Unusual in Lamiales is the absence of vertical partitions in the heads of the glandular hairs.

The structure and form of the flowers is variable. Some genera are 4-merous (i.e. with 4 sepals and 4 petals), such as Aragoa (but this one has 5 sepals); others are 5-8-merous, such as Sibthorpia. The flowers of most genera are polysymmetric. The corolla is often two-lipped. In some taxa, the androecium is formed before the corolla.

The fruit is a capsule that dehisces through the partitions between the cells.

A group of genera including Lindernia has recently been segregated [3][4] as the family Linderniaceae,[5] and recognized by Haston et al. 2007, (also known as LAPG II) as "Post-APG II family".[6]

Genera[edit]

The enlarged Plantaginaceae s.l. / Veronicaceae consists of 90 genera and about 1,700 species. The largest genus is Veronica with about 450 species. Veronica also includes the genera Hebe, Parahebe and Synthyris, formerly often treated as distinct. All genera of Plantaginaceae were formerly included in Scrophulariaceae except where otherwise stated.

Tribe Angelonieae
Tribe Antirrhineae
Tribe Callitricheae
Tribe Cheloneae
Tribe Digitalideae
Tribe Globularieae
Tribe Gratioleae
Tribe Hemiphragmeae
Tribe Plantagineae
Tribe Russelieae
Tribe Sipthorpieae
Tribe Veroniceae

Excluded genera[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III" (PDF). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x. Retrieved 2013-07-06. 
  2. ^ "Family: Plantaginaceae Juss., nom. cons.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. 2003-01-17. Retrieved 2011-04-28. 
  3. ^ a b Albach, D. C.; Meudt, H. M.; Oxelman, B. (2005). "Piecing together the "new" Plantaginaceae". American Journal of Botany 92 (2): 297–315. doi:10.3732/ajb.92.2.297. PMID 21652407. 
  4. ^ Oxelman, B.; Kornhall, P.; Olmstead, R. G.; Bremer, B. (2005). "Further disintegration of Scrophulariaceae". Taxon 54 (2): 411–425. doi:10.2307/25065369. JSTOR 25065369. 
  5. ^ Rahmanzadeh, R., K. Müller, E. Fischer, D. Bartels & T. Borsch. 2005. The Linderniaceae and Gratiolaceae are further lineages distinct from the Scrophulariaceae (Lamiales). Pl. Biol. ( Stuttgart) 7: 67-78.
  6. ^ Haston, E., Richardson, J. E., Stevens, P. F., Chase, M. W., Harris, D. J. (2007). "A linear sequence of Angiosperm Phylogeny Group II families". Taxon 56 (1): 7–12. doi:10.2307/25065731. 
  7. ^ "GRIN Genera of Plantaginaceae tribe Angelonieae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. Retrieved 2011-04-28. 
  8. ^ "GRIN Genera of Plantaginaceae tribe Antirrhineae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. Retrieved 2011-04-28. 
  9. ^ "GRIN Genera of Plantaginaceae tribe Callitricheae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. Retrieved 2011-04-28. 
  10. ^ "GRIN Genera of Plantaginaceae tribe Cheloneae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. Retrieved 2011-04-28. 
  11. ^ "GRIN Genera of Plantaginaceae tribe Digitalideae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. Retrieved 2011-04-28. 
  12. ^ "GRIN Genera of Plantaginaceae tribe Globularieae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. Retrieved 2011-04-28. 
  13. ^ "GRIN Genera of Plantaginaceae tribe Gratioleae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. Retrieved 2011-04-28. 
  14. ^ "GRIN Genera of Plantaginaceae tribe Hemiphragmeae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. Retrieved 2011-04-28. 
  15. ^ "GRIN Genera of Plantaginaceae tribe Plantagineae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. Retrieved 2011-04-28. 
  16. ^ "GRIN Genera of Plantaginaceae tribe Russelieae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. Retrieved 2011-04-28. 
  17. ^ "GRIN Genera of Plantaginaceae tribe Sipthorpieae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. Retrieved 2011-04-28. 
  18. ^ "GRIN Genera of Plantaginaceae tribe Veroniceae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. Retrieved 2011-04-28. 
  19. ^ "GRIN genera sometimes placed in Plantaginaceae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. Retrieved 2011-04-28. 

Bibliography[edit]

A Phylogeny of Toadflaxes (Linaria Mill.) Based on Nuclear Internal Transcribed Spacer Sequences: Systematic and Evolutionary Consequences Mario Fernández-Mazuecos, José Luis Blanco-Pastor, and Pablo Vargas International Journal of Plant Sciences, Vol. 174, No. 2 (February 2013), pp. 234-249 Published by: The University of Chicago Press Article DOI: 10.1086/668790

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