endemic to a single nation
Regularity: Regularly occurring
Type of Residency: Year-round
Global Range: (5000-200,000 square km (about 2000-80,000 square miles)) Range includes extreme southeastern Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and the Delmarva Peninsula of eastern Maryland, Delaware, and Virginia (Tobey 1985, Hulse et al. 2001, White and White 2002, Lemmon et al. 2007). Conant and Collins (1991) stated that the species ranges north to Staten Island, New York, but Gibbs et al. (2007) did not indicate any historical or extant occurrences of this frog in that area.
Habitat and Ecology
Comments: This frog occupies various moist habitats, including grassy floodplains and wet woodlands containing shallow wetlands (ephemeral pools, ditches, wooded swamps, freshwater marshes) in which breeding occurs (White and White 2002). Eggs are attached to submerged vegetation.
Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.
Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).
Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.
Number of Occurrences
Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.
Estimated Number of Occurrences: 81 - 300
Comments: This species is represented by a large number of occurrences.
10,000 - 1,000,000 individuals
Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but presumably exceeds 10,000. This frog is common throughout the Coastal Plain of the Delmarva Peninsula (White and White 2002).
Life History and Behavior
On the Delmarva Peninsula, breeding may begin in February, peaks in March, and continues through May; larvae metamorphose in late spring (White and White 2002).
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
National NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded National Status Rank: N4 - Apparently Secure
NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded Global Status Rank: G4 - Apparently Secure
Trends are not well documented, but area of occupnacy, number of subpopulations, and population size probably are declining at a rate of less than 10 percent over 10 years or three generations.
Global Short Term Trend: Relatively stable (=10% change)
Comments: Trends are not well documented, but area of occupnacy, number of subpopulations, and population size probably are declining at a rate of less than 10 percent over 10 years or three generations.
Global Long Term Trend: Increase of 10-25% to decline of 30%
Degree of Threat: Medium
Comments: No major threats are known, but locally the species likely has been reduced or eliminated as a result of conversion of habitat to human uses.
Global Protection: Several to many (4-40) occurrences appropriately protected and managed
Comments: At least several occurrences are in protected areas.
Names and Taxonomy
Comments: A molecular phylogeny of Pseudacris based on mtDNA data (Moriarty and Cannatella 2004) revealed four strongly supported clades within Pseudacris: (1) A West Coast Clade containing regilla and cadaverina, (2) a Fat Frog Clade including ornata, streckeri, and illinoensis, (3) a Crucifer Clade consisting of crucifer and ocularis, and (4) a Trilling Frog Clade containing all other Pseudacris. Within the Trilling Frog Clade, brimleyi and brachyphona form the sister group to the Nigrita Clade: nigrita, feriarum, triseriata, kalmi, clarkii, and maculata. The Nigrita Clade shows geographic division into three clades: (1) populations of maculata and triseriata west of the Mississippi River and Canadian populations, (2) southeastern United States populations of feriarum and nigrita, and (3) northeastern United States populations of feriarum, kalmi, and triseriata. Moriarty and Cannatella (2004) found that subspecific epithets for crucifer (crucifer and bartramiana) and nigrita (nigrita and verrucosa) are uninformative, and they therefore discouraged recognition of these subspecies. They concluded that further study is needed to determine if illinoensis warrants status as a distinct species. Molecular data were consistent with retention of regilla, cadaverina, ocularis, and crucifer in the genus Pseudacris.
Using mtDNA samples from a large number of localities throughout North America, Lemmon et al. (2007) elucidated the phylogenetic relationships and established the geographic ranges of the trilling chorus frogs (Pseudacris). They redefined the ranges of several taxa, including P. maculata, P. triseriata, and P. feriarum; found strong evidence for recognizing P. kalmi as a distinct species; and discovered a previously undetected species in the south-central United States (now known as P. fouquettei; Lemmon et al. 2008). Based on mtDNA data, Pseudacris maculata and P. clarkii did not emerge as distinct, monophyletic lineages but, given the degree of morphological and behavioral divergence between the taxa, Lemmon et al. (2007) chose to recognize them as separate species, until further data suggest otherwise.