Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Herbs, shrubs or trees, usually with stellate hairs. Stipules present. Leaves alternate, often palmately divided. Flowers bisexual (rarely unisexual [in ours?]), actinomorphic. Epicalyx usually present, sometimes 0. Calyx (3-)5-lobed, truncate or occasionally 5- to 10-toothed. Petals 5, free. Stamens numerous, united in a tube surrounding the style. Anthers 1-thecous. Ovary superior, (1-)2-many-locular. Style often branched at apex. Fruit (in ours) either a dehiscent capsule or a schizocarp (composed of a number of mericarps arranged around a central axis).
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© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

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Distribution

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Malvaceae Juss.:
Colombia (South America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., R. D. C. Ortiz, R. Callejas Posada & M. Merello. 2011. Flora de Antioquia. Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares, vol. 2. Listado de las Plantas Vasculares del Departamento de Antioquia. Pp. 1-939.   http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/100008595 External link.
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Ecology

Associations

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Apion aeneum feeds within stem of Malvaceae

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Apion malvae feeds within fruit of Malvaceae

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Apion radiolus feeds within stem of Malvaceae

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Apion rufirostre feeds within fruit of Malvaceae

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / miner
larva of Liriomyza strigata mines leaf of Malvaceae

Foodplant / feeds on
gregarious, covered by blackened epidermis, finally erumpent by a slit pycnidium of Phomopsis coelomycetous anamorph of Phomopsis malvacearum feeds on stem of Malvaceae

Foodplant / open feeder
imago of Podagrica fuscicornis grazes on leaf of Malvaceae

Foodplant / open feeder
imago of Podagrica fuscipes grazes on leaf of Malvaceae

Foodplant / sap sucker
nymph of Pyrrhocoris apterus sucks sap of Malvaceae

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
                                        
Specimen Records:2,843Public Records:1,418
Specimens with Sequences:2,317Public Species:226
Specimens with Barcodes:2,278Public BINs:0
Species:581         
Species With Barcodes:491         
          
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Malvaceae Jorge186

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Barcode data

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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Locations of barcode samples

Collection Sites: world map showing specimen collection locations for Malvaceae

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Wikipedia

Malvaceae

The Malvaceae, or the mallows, are a family of flowering plants containing over 200 genera with close to 2,300 species.[2] Well-known members of this family include okra, cotton, and cacao. The largest genera in terms of number of species include Hibiscus (300 species), Sterculia (250 species), Dombeya (225 species), Pavonia (200 species), and Sida (200 species[verification needed]).

Taxonomy and nomenclature[edit]

The circumscription of the Malvaceae is very controversial. The traditional Malvaceae sensu stricto comprise a very homogeneous and cladistically monophyletic group. Another major circumscription, Malvaceae sensu lato, has been more recently defined on the basis that molecular techniques have shown the commonly recognised families Bombacaceae, Tiliaceae, and Sterculiaceae, which have always been considered closely allied to Malvaceae s.s., are not monophyletic groups. Thus, the Malvaceae can be expanded to include all of these families so as to compose a monophyletic group. Adopting this circumscription, the Malvaceae incorporate a much larger number of genera.

This article is based on the second circumscription, as presented by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website.[3] The Malvaceae s.l. (hereafter simply "Malvaceae") comprise nine subfamilies. A tentative cladogram of the family is shown below. The diamond denotes a poorly supported branching (<80%).




Byttnerioideae: 26 genera, 650 species, pantropical, especially South America



Grewioideae: 25 genera, 770 species, pantropical




Sterculioideae: 12 genera, 430 species, pantropical



Tilioideae: three genera, 50 species, northern temperate regions and Central America



Dombeyoideae: about 20 genera, about 380 species, palaeotropical, especially Madagascar and Mascarenes



Brownlowioideae: eight genera, about 70 species, especially palaeotropical



Helicteroideae: eight to 12 genera, 10 to 90 species, tropical, especially Southeast Asia



Malvoideae: 78 genera, 1,670 species, temperate to tropical



Bombacoideae: 12 genera, 120 species, tropical, especially Africa and America





It is important to point out the relationships between these subfamilies are still either poorly supported or almost completely obscure, so the circumscription of the family may change dramatically as new studies are published.

If looking for information about the traditional Malvaceae s.s., we recommend referring to Malvoideae, the subfamily that approximately corresponds to that group.

The English common name 'mallow' (also applied to other members of Malvaceae) comes from Latin malva (also the source for the English word "mauve"). Malva itself was ultimately derived from the word for the plant in ancient Mediterranean languages.[4] Cognates of the word include Ancient Greek μαλάχη (malákhē) or μολόχη (molókhē), Modern Greek μολόχα (molóha), modern Arabic: ملوخية‎ (mulukhiyah) and modern Hebrew: מלוחיה‎ (molokhia).[4][5]

Description[edit]

Alcea rosea is a common garden flower in Malvaceae

Most species are herbs or shrubs, but some are trees and lianas.

Leaves and stems[edit]

Stellate hairs on the underside of a dried leaf of Malva alcea

Leaves are generally alternate, often palmately lobed or compound and palmately veined. The margin may be entire, but when dentate, a vein ends at the tip of each tooth (malvoid teeth). Stipules are present. The stems contain mucous canals and often also mucous cavities. Hairs are common, and are most typically stellate.

Flowers[edit]

The flowers are commonly borne in definite or indefinite axillary inflorescences, which are often reduced to a single flower, but may also be cauliflorous, oppositifolious, or terminal. They often bear supernumerary bracts. They can be unisexual or bisexual, and are generally actinomorphic, often associated with conspicuous bracts, forming an epicalyx. They generally have five valvate sepals, most frequently basally connate, with five imbricate petals. The stamens are five to numerous, and connate at least at their bases, but often forming a tube around the pistils. The pistils are composed of two to many connate carpels. The ovary is superior, with axial placentation, with capitate or lobed stigma. The flowers have nectaries made of many tightly packed glandular hairs, usually positioned on the sepals.

Fruits[edit]

Durian fruits

The fruits are most often loculicidal capsules, schizocarps or nuts.

Pollination[edit]

Self-pollination is often avoided by means of protandry. Most species are entomophilous (pollinated by insects).

Importance[edit]

A number of species are pests in agriculture, including Abutilon theophrasti and Modiola caroliniana, and others that are garden escapes. Cotton (four species of Gossypium), kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus), cacao, kola nut, and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) are important agricultural crops. The fruit and leaves of baobabs are edible, as is the fruit of the durian.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III" (PDF). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x. Retrieved 2013-07-06. 
  2. ^ Judd & al.
  3. ^ Angiosperm Phylogeny Website
  4. ^ a b Douglas Harper. "mallow". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved February 3, 2012. 
  5. ^ Khalid. "Molokheya: an Egyptian National Dish". THe Baheyeldin Dynasty. Retrieved September 10, 2011. 
  • Baum, D. A., W. S. Alverson, and R. Nyffeler (1998). "A durian by any other name: taxonomy and nomenclature of the core Malvales". Harvard Papers in Botany 3: 315–330. 
  • Baum, D. A.; Dewitt Smith, S.; Yen, A.; Alverson, W. S.; Nyffeler, R.; Whitlock, B. A.; Oldham, R. L. (2004). "Phylogenetic relationships of Malvatheca (Bombacoideae and Malvoideae; Malvaceae sensu lato) as inferred from plastid DNA sequences". American Journal of Botany 91 (11): 1863–1871. doi:10.3732/ajb.91.11.1863. PMID 21652333.  edit
  • Bayer, C. (1999). "Support for an expanded family concept of Malvaceae within a recircumscribed order Malvales: a combined analysis of plastidatpB andrbcL DNA sequences". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 129 (4): 267–303. doi:10.1006/bojl.1998.0226.  edit
  • Bayer, C. and K. Kubitzki 2003. Malvaceae, pp. 225–311. In K. Kubitzki (ed.), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants, vol. 5, Malvales, Capparales and non-betalain Caryophyllales.
  • Edlin, H. L. (1935). "A Critical Revision of Certain Taxonomic Groups of the Malvales Part Ii1". New Phytologist 34 (2): 122–143. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.1935.tb06834.x.  edit
  • Judd, W. S.; Manchester, S. R. (1997). "Circumscription of Malvaceae (Malvales) as Determined by a Preliminary Cladistic Analysis of Morphological, Anatomical, Palynological, and Chemical Characters". Brittonia 49 (3): 384–405. doi:10.2307/2807839. JSTOR 2807839.  edit
  • Judd, W. S., C. S. Campbell, E. A. Kellogg and P. F. Stevens. Plant Systematics: A Phylogenetic Approach.
  • Maas, P. J. M. and L. Y. Th. Westra. 2005. Neotropical Plant Families (3rd edition).
  • Perveen, A.; Grafström, E.; El-Ghazaly†, G. (2004). "World Pollen and Spore Flora 23. Malvaceae Adams. P.p. Subfamilies: Grewioideae, Tilioideae, Brownlowioideae". Grana 43 (3): 129. doi:10.1080/00173130410000730. ISSN 0017-3134.  edit
  • Tate, J. A., J. F. Aguilar, S. J. Wagstaff, J. C. La Duke, T. A. Bodo Slotta and B. B. Simpson (2005). "Phylogenetic relationships within the tribe Malveae (Malvaceae, subfamily Malvoideae) as inferred from ITS sequence data". American Journal of Botany 92 (4): 584–602. doi:10.3732/ajb.92.4.584. PMID 21652437.  (abstract online here).
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Sparrmanniaceae

Sparrmanniaceae is a segregate plant family, containing plants which have more commonly been classified in Malvaceae or Tiliaceae. In the most recent proposed circumscription, that of Cheek ex Heywood et al.,[1] it corresponds to subfamily Grewioideae of the APG family Malvaceae.[2]

References

  1. ^ Heywood et al., Flowering Plant Families of the World (2007)
  2. ^ Kubitzki & Bayer, Families and Genera of Vascular Plants V (2005)


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