The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 2, 8: 174. Sep 1851.
  • Annals and Magazine of Natural History, ser. 2 8: 174. 1851. (Sep 1851) (Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 2,)
  • Berendsohn, W.G., A. K. Gruber & J. A. Monterrosa Salomón. 2009. Nova Silva Cuscatlanica. Árboles nativos e introducidos de El Salvador. Parte 1: Angiospermae - Familias A a L. Englera 29(1): 1–438.
  • Coates Palgrave K. (revised and updated by Meg Coates Palgrave) (2002) Trees of Southern Africa 3rd edition. Struik, South Africa
  • Gutierrez Baez, C. 1994. Icacinaceae. Fl. Veracruz 80: 1–16.
  • Howard, R. A. 1942. Studies of the Icacinaceae--IV. Considerations of the New World genera. Contr. Gray Herb. 142: 3–60.
  • Howard, R. A. 1976 [1977]. Flora of Panama, Part VI. Family 106. Icacinaceae. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 63(3): 399–417.
  • Howard, R. A. 2001. Icacinaceae. In Flora de Nicaragua. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 85(2): 1156–1157.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., R. D. C. Ortiz, R. Callejas Posada & M. Merello. (eds.) 2011. Fl. Antioquia: Cat. 2: 9–939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Mendes, E.J. (1963) Icacinaceae FZ 2(1)
  • Standley, P. C. & J. A. Steyermark. 1949. Icacinaceae. In Standley, P.C. & Steyermark, J.A. (Eds), Flora of Guatemala - Part VI. Fieldiana, Bot. 24(6): 225–229.
  • Stevens, W. D., C. Ulloa Ulloa, A. Pool & O. M. Montiel. 2001. Flora de Nicaragua. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 85: i–xlii,.
  • de Roon, A. C. 1994. 112. Icacinaceae. 16: 82–109. In A. R. A. Görts-van Rijn (ed.) Fl. Guianas, ser. A, Phanerog. Koeltz Scientific Books, Königstein.
  • duno de stefano. 2002. Icacinaceae. 37: 1–21. In G. F. Bocquet & M. R. Crosby (eds.) Fl. Paraguay. Conservatoire et Jardin Botaniques de la Ville de Genève & Missouri Botanical Garden, Geneva & St. Louis.


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