The cheetah (pronounced /\ˈchē-tə\/) (Acinonyx jubatus), also known as the hunting leopard, is a big cat that occurs mainly in eastern and southern Africa and a few parts of Iran. It is the only extant member of the genus Acinonyx, and is placed in the subfamily Felinae. The cheetah was first described by German naturalist Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber in 1775. The cheetah is characterised by a slender body, deep chest, spotted pelage, a small rounded head, black tear-like streaks on the face, long thin legs and a long spotted tail. Its lightly built, thin form is in sharp contrast with the robust build of the other big cats. The cheetah reaches nearly 70 to 90 centimetres (28 to 35 in) at the shoulder, and weighs 21–72 kilograms (46–159 lb). While it is taller than the leopard, it is notably smaller than the lion. Basically yellowish tan or rufous to grayish white, the coat of the cheetah is uniformly covered with nearly 2,000 black, solid spots. The upper parts are in stark contrast to the underbelly, that is completely white. Every cheetah has a unique pattern of spots on its coat; hence this serves as a distinct identity for each individual. The cheetah is often confused with the leopard and the cougar.
Their main hunting strategy is to trip swift prey such as various antelope species and hares with its dewclaw. Almost every facet of the cheetah's anatomy has evolved to maximise its success in the chase, the result of an evolutionary arms race with its prey. Due to this specialisation, however, the cheetah is poorly equipped to defend itself against other large predators, with speed being its main means of defence. In the wild, the cheetah is a prolific breeder, with up to nine cubs in a litter. The majority of cubs do not survive to adulthood, mainly as a result of depredation from other predators. The rate of cub mortality varies from area to area, from 50% to 75%, and in extreme cases such as the Serengeti ecosystem, up to 90%. Cheetahs are notoriously poor breeders in captivity, though several organizations, such as the De Wildt Cheetah and Wildlife Centre, have succeeded in breeding high numbers of cubs.
The cheetah is listed as vulnerable, facing various threats including loss of habitat and prey; conflict with humans; the illegal pet trade; competition with and predation by other carnivores; and a gene pool with very low variability. It is a charismatic species and many captive cats are "ambassadors" for their species and wildlife conservation in general.
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Statistics of barcoding coverage
Specimens with Sequences:55
Specimens with Barcodes:21
Species With Barcodes:1
Several fossilAcinonyx species in addition to the living cheetah have been described:
- Acinonyx jubatus — by Schreber in 1775
- Acinonyx pardinensis †, the giant cheetah — by Croizet et Jobert in 1828
- Acinonyx intermedius † — by Thenius in 1954
- Acinonyx aicha † — by Geraads in 1997
- Acinonyx kurteni † — by Christiansen and Mazák in 2008 It is no longer a valid species, probably fraudulent.
- Wozencraft, W. C. (2005). "Order Carnivora". In Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 532–533. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
- Krausman, P. R. and Morales, S. M. (2005). Acinonyx jubatus. Mammalian Species 771: 1–6.
- Hemmer, H., Kahlke, R.-D., Keller, T. (2008). Cheetahs in the Middle Pleistocene of Europe: Acinonyx pardinensis (sensu lato) intermedius (Thenius, 1954) from the Mosbach Sands (Wiesbaden, Hessen, Germany). Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen 249: 345–356.
- Schreber, J. C. D. (1777). Die Säugthiere in Abbildungen nach der Natur mit Beschreibungen 1776-1778. Wolfgang Walther, Erlangen
- Croizet, J. B. et Jobert, A. C. G. (1862). Recherches sur les ossemens fossiles du département du Puy-de-Dôme. Chez les principaux libraires, Paris
- Thenius, E. (1954). Gepardreste aus dem Altquartär von Hundsheim in Niederösterreich. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Monatshefte: 225–238.
- Geraads, D. (1997). Carnivores du Pliocène terminalde Ahl al Oughlam (Casablanca, Maroc). Geobios 30 (1): 127–164.
- Christiansen, P.; Mazák, J. H. (2009). "A primitive Late Pliocene cheetah, and evolution of the cheetah lineage". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106 (2): 512–5. doi:10.1073/pnas.0810435106. PMC 2626734. PMID 19114651.
- Knevitt, Oliver (2011). "5 Greatest Palaeontology Fakes Of All Time #5: The Linxia Cheetah". Science 2.0. Retrieved January 2013.
- Mazák, J. H. (2012). "Retraction for Christiansen and Mazák. A primitive Late Pliocene cheetah, and evolution of the cheetah lineage". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 109 (37): 15072. doi:10.1073/pnas.1211510109. PMID 22908293.
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