synnematum of Cephalotrichum dematiaceous anamorph of Cephalotrichum purpureofuscum is saprobic in/on dung or excretions of dung of Sus 'domestic'
Animal / dung saprobe
apothecium of Fimaria porcina is saprobic in/on dung or excretions of dung of Sus 'domestic'
Animal / rests in
cyst of Sarcocystis rests inside striated muscle of Sus 'domestic'
Animal / parasite / endoparasite
larva of Toxocara canis endoparasitises tissue of Sus 'domestic'
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Statistics of barcoding coverage
Specimens with Sequences:318
Specimens with Barcodes:286
Species With Barcodes:5
A pig is any of the animals in the genus Sus, within the Suidae family of even-toed ungulates. Pigs include the domestic pig and its ancestor, the common Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa), along with other species; related creatures outside the genus include the peccary, the babirusa, and the warthog. Pigs, like all suids, are native to the Eurasian and African continents. Juvenile pigs are known as piglets. Pigs are omnivores and are highly social and intelligent animals.
Description and behaviour
A typical pig has a large head with a long snout which is strengthened by a special prenasal bone and by a disk of cartilage at the tip. The snout is used to dig into the soil to find food and is a very acute sense organ. There are four hoofed toes on each trotter (foot), with the two larger central toes bearing most of the weight, but the outer two also being used in soft ground.
The dental formula of adult pigs is 22.214.171.124, giving a total of 44 teeth. The rear teeth are adapted for crushing. In the male the canine teeth form tusks, which grow continuously and are sharpened by constantly being ground against each other.
Occasionally, captive mother pigs may savage their own piglets, often if they become severely stressed. Some attacks on newborn piglets are non-fatal. Others may cause the death of the piglets and sometimes, the mother may eat the piglets. It is estimated that 50% of piglet fatalities are due to the mother attacking, or unintentionally crushing, the newborn pre-weaned animals.
Distribution and evolution
The ancestor of the domesticated pig is the wild boar, which is one of the most numerous and widespread large mammals. Its many subspecies are native to all but the harshest climates of continental Eurasia and its islands and Africa as well, from Ireland and India to Japan and north to Siberia. Although it has been exterminated in some areas, its numbers are stable, or even increasing rapidly, in most of its native range.
Long isolated from other pigs on the many islands of Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines, pigs have evolved into many different species, including wild boar, bearded pigs, and warty pigs. Humans have introduced pigs into Australia, North and South America, and numerous islands, either accidentally as escaped domestic pigs which have gone feral, or as wild boar. These have typically adapted well, and are increasing in number and broadening their range outside human control.
Habitat and reproduction
The wild pig (Sus scrofa) can take advantage of any forage resources. Therefore, it can live in virtually any productive habitat that can provide enough water to sustain large mammals such as pigs. If there is increased foraging of wild pigs in certain areas, it can cause a nutritional shortage which can cause the pig population to decrease. If the nutritional state returns to normal, the pig population will most likely rise due to the pigs' naturally increased reproduction rate.
Diet and foraging
Pigs are omnivores, which means that they consume both plants and animals. In the wild, they are foraging animals, primarily eating leaves, grasses, roots, fruits, and flowers. In confinement, pigs are fed mostly corn and soybean meal with a mixture of vitamins and minerals added to the diet. Because pigs are omnivores they make excellent pasture raised animals. Traditionally they were raised on dairy farms and called "mortgage lifters" due to their ability to use the excess milk as well as whey from cheese and butter making combined with pasture. Older pigs will consume three to five gallons of water per day.
Relationship with humans
Domesticated pigs, called swine, are raised commercially for meat (generally called pork, hams, gammon or bacon), as well as for leather. Their bristly hairs are also used for brushes. Due to their common use as livestock, adult swine have gender specific names: the males are boars and the females are sows. In Britain, the word hog can refer to a castrated adult male pig. Young swine are called piglets or pigs. Pork is one of the most popular forms of meat for human consumption, accounting for 38% of worldwide meat production.
Both wild and feral pigs are commonly hunted. Some breeds of pig, such as the Asian pot-bellied pig, are kept as pets. There are two instances in the 2000s where farm hogs ate human beings. The first was in 2004 in Romania, where a woman died after her ears, half of her face and her fingers were consumed; the other in 2012 in Oregon—whether the farmer was killed by his hogs or died of another cause before being consumed is unknown.
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- Sus ahoenobarbus Huet, 1888 – Palawan bearded pig
- †Sus australis Han, 1987 – Early Pleistocene of China
- Sus barbatus Müller, 1838 – Bearded pig
- †Sus bijiashanensis Han et al., 1975 – Early Pleistocene of China
- Sus bucculentus Heude, 1892 – Heude's Pig or Indo-Chinese (or Vietnam) warty pig
- Sus cebifrons Heude, 1888 – Visayan warty pig
- Sus celebensis Müller & Schlegel, 1843 – Celebes warty pig or Sulawesi warty pig
- †Sus falconeri – Pleistocene of the Siwalik region, India
- †Sus houi Qi et al., 1999 – Pleistocene of China
- †Sus hysudricus
- †Sus jiaoshanensis Zhao, 1980 – Early Pleistocene of China
- †Sus liuchengensis Han, 1987 – Early Pleistocene of China
- †Sus lydekkeri Zdansky, 1928 – Pleistocene of China
- †Sus offecinalis Koenigswald, 1933 – China
- Sus oliveri Groves, 1997 – Oliver's warty pig or Mindoro warty pig
- †Sus peii Han, 1987 – Early Pleistocene of China
- Sus philippensis Nehring, 1886 – Philippine warty pig
- Sus scrofa – Wild boar Linnaeus, 1758
- †Sus subtriquetra Xue, 1981
- †Sus strozzi
- Sus verrucosus Boie, 1832 – Javan warty pig
- †Sus xiaozhu Han et al., 1975 – Early Pleistocene of China
Pigs have been domesticated since ancient times in the Old World. Archaeological evidence suggests that pigs were being managed in the wild in a way similar to the way they are managed by some modern New Guineans from wild boar as early as 13,000–12,700 BP in the Near East in the Tigris Basin. Remains of pigs have been dated to earlier than 11,400 BP in Cyprus that must have been introduced from the mainland which suggests domestication in the adjacent mainland by then. A separate domestication also occurred in China.
In India, pigs have been domesticated for a long time mostly in Goa and some rural areas for pig toilets. This was also done in China. Though ecologically logical as well as economical, pig toilets are waning in popularity as use of septic tanks and/or sewerage systems is increasing in rural areas.
Pigs were brought to southeastern North America from Europe by Hernando de Soto and other early Spanish explorers. Pigs are particularly valued in China and on certain oceanic islands, where their self-sufficiency allows them to be turned loose, although the practice is not without its drawbacks (see environmental impact). With managed rotational grazing techniques pigs can be raised in an environmentally sound manner on pasture much like grazing sheep, goats and cows without high grain inputs.
The domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) is usually given the scientific name Sus scrofa, although some authors call it S. domesticus, reserving S. scrofa for the wild boar. It was domesticated approximately 5,000 to 7,000 years ago. Their coats are coarse and bristly. They are born brownish coloured and tend to turn more grayish coloured with age. The upper canines form sharp distinctive tusks that curve outward and upward. Compared to other artiodactyles, their head is relatively long, pointed, and free of warts. Their head and body length ranges from 0.9 to 1.8 m (35 to 71 in) and they can weigh between 50 and 350 kg (110 and 770 lb).
Cultural and religious reference to pigs
Pigs appear in the traditional art and literature of many societies, where they sometimes carry religious symbolism. In Asia the wild boar is one of twelve animal images comprising the Chinese zodiac, while in Europe the boar represents a standard charge in heraldry. Many Abrahamic religions view pigs and those who handle them negatively. Pigs are frequently alluded to in proverbs, metaphors, idioms, and folk art.
Domestic pigs that have escaped from farms or were allowed to forage in the wild, and in some cases wild boars which were introduced as prey for hunting, have given rise to large populations of feral pigs in North and South America, Australia, New Zealand, Hawaii, and other areas where pigs are not native. Accidental or deliberate releases of pigs into countries or environments where they are an alien species have caused extensive environmental change. Their omnivorous diet, aggressive behaviour, and their feeding method of rooting in the ground all combine to severely alter ecosystems unused to pigs. Pigs will even eat small animals and destroy nests of ground nesting birds. The Invasive Species Specialist Group lists feral pigs on the list of the world's 100 worst invasive species and says:
|“||Feral pigs like other introduced mammals are major drivers of extinction and ecosystem change. They have been introduced into many parts of the world, and will damage crops and home gardens as well as potentially spreading disease. They uproot large areas of land, eliminating native vegetation and spreading weeds. This results in habitat alteration, a change in plant succession and composition and a decrease in native fauna dependent on the original habitat.||”|
Pigs can harbour a range of parasites and diseases that can be transmitted to humans. These include trichinosis, Taenia solium, cysticercosis, and brucellosis. Pigs are also known to host large concentrations of parasitic ascarid worms in their digestive tract. According to the USDA fact sheet modern pork can be enjoyed cooked rare at 145 °F with pink in the middle. Today trichinellosis infections from eating undercooked pork are rare in more technologically developed countries due to refrigeration, health laws, and public awareness. Some religious groups have dietary laws that make pork an "unclean" meat, and adherents sometimes interpret these health issues as validation of their views.
Pigs have health issues of their own. Pigs have small lungs in relation to their body size and are thus more susceptible than other domesticated animals to fatal bronchitis and pneumonia. Some strains of influenza are endemic in pigs (see swine influenza). Pigs also can acquire human influenza.
Pigs can be aggressive in defending themselves and their young. Pig-induced injuries are thus not unusual in areas where pigs are raised or where they form part of the wild or feral fauna.
In November 2012 scientists managed to sequence the genome of the domestic pig. The similarities between the pig and human genomes mean that the new data may have wide applications in the study and treatment of human genetic diseases.
- "Piglet - Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary". Merriam-webster.com. 31 August 2012. Retrieved 15 September 2013.
- Angier, Natalie (10 November 2009). "Pigs Prove to Be Smart, if Not Vain". The New York Times.
- ADW: Sus scrofa: Information
- Feral Pig / Hog / Pig / Wild Boar Hunting
- Harris, M., Bergeron, R., Li1, Y. and Gonyou, H. (2001). "Savaging of piglets: A puzzle of maternal behaviour". Retrieved July 31, 2013.
- North Carolina Pork Conference – Management Tips to Reduce Pre-Weaning Mortality. 2002. North Carolina State University.
- Production, Supply and Distribution Online Query, United States Department of Agriculture, Foreign Agricultural Service
- Swine Summary Selected Countries, United States Department of Agriculture, Foreign Agricultural Service, (total number is Production (Pig Crop) plus Total Beginning Stocks
- John J. Mayer and I. Lehr Brisbin, Jr., "Wild Pigs Biology, Damage, Control Techniques and Management", Savannah River National Laboratory Aiken, South Carolina, 2009
- Sugar Mountain Farm in Vermont Sugar Mountain Farm
- University of Illinois - FarmDoc
- Raloff, Janet. Food for Thought: Global Food Trends. Science News Online. 31 May 2003.
- Funk, Stephan M.; Kumar Verma, Sunil; Larson, Greger; Prasad, Kasturi; Singh, Lalji; Narayan, Goutam; Fa, John E. (2007). "The pygmy hog is a unique genus: 19th century taxonomists got it right first time round". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 45 (2): 427–436. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2007.08.007. PMID 17905601.
- Rosenberg, M; Nesbitt, R; Redding, RW; Peasnall, BL (1998). "Hallan Cemi, pig husbandry, and post-Pleistocene adaptations along the Taurus-Zagros Arc (Turkey)".". Paleorient 24 (1): 25–41.
- Vigne, JD; Zazzo, A; Saliège, JF; Poplin, F; Guilaine, J; Simmons, A (2009). "Pre-Neolithic wild boar management and introduction to Cyprus more than 11,400 years ago". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106 (38): 16135–16138. Bibcode:2009PNAS..10616135V. doi:10.1073/pnas.0905015106. PMC 2752532. PMID 19706455.
- Giuffra, E; Kijas, J. M.; Amarger, V; Carlborg, O; Jeon, J. T.; Andersson, L (April 2000). "The origin of the domestic pig: independent domestication and subsequent introgression". Genetics 154 (4): 1785–91. PMC 1461048. PMID 10747069.
- Sugar Mountain Farm Pastured Pig Techniques
- Broom, Donald M.; Hilana Sena; Kiera L. Moynihan (November 2009). "Pigs learn what a mirror image represents and use it to obtain information". Animal Behaviour 78 (5): 1037–1041. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2009.07.027. ISSN 0003-3472. Retrieved 28 July 2010.
Mirror usage has been taken to indicate some degree of awareness in animals. ... When put in a pen with a mirror in it, young pigs made movements while apparently looking at their image. After 5 h spent with a mirror, the pigs were shown a familiar food bowl, visible in the mirror but hidden behind a solid barrier. Seven out of eight pigs found the food bowl in a mean of 23 s by going away from the mirror and around the barrier. ... To use information from a mirror and find a food bowl, each pig must have observed features of its surroundings, remembered these and its own actions, deduced relationships among observed and remembered features and acted accordingly. This ability indicates assessment awareness in pigs. The results may have some effects on the design of housing conditions for pigs and may lead to better pig welfare.
- Angier, Natalie (9 November 2009). "Pigs Prove to Be Smart, if Not Vain". The New York Times (New York, New York, US: The New York Times Company). Retrieved 28 July 2010.
They’ve found that pigs are among the quickest of animals to learn a new routine, and pigs can do a circus’s worth of tricks: jump hoops, bow and stand, spin and make wordlike sounds on command, roll out rugs, herd sheep, close and open cages, play videogames with joysticks, and more.
- Ecology of Sus scrofa, Global Invasive Species Database, The Invasive Species Specialist Group
- Pig Health
- "USDA Pork Fact Sheet".
- "CDC - Trichinellosis - General Information". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2 November 2010. Retrieved 23 March 2011.
- Marie Parsons. "Pigs in Ancient Egypt"
- Pros and Cons of Potbellied Pigs
- McClung, Robert M., The New Book of Knowledge: Pigs
- (Medical Daily) (Business Standard)
- Groenen, Martien A. M.; Archibald, Alan L.; Uenishi, Hirohide; Tuggle, Christopher K.; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro; Rothschild, Max F.; Rogel-Gaillard, Claire; Park, Chankyu; Milan, Denis; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Li, Shengting; Larkin, Denis M.; Kim, Heebal; Frantz, Laurent A. F.; Caccamo, Mario; Ahn, Hyeonju; Aken, Bronwen L.; Anselmo, Anna; Anthon, Christian; Auvil, Loretta; Badaoui, Bouabid; Beattie, Craig W.; Bendixen, Christian; Berman, Daniel; Blecha, Frank; Blomberg, Jonas; Bolund, Lars; Bosse, Mirte; Botti, Sara et al. (2012). "Analyses of pig genomes provide insight into porcine demography and evolution". Nature 491 (7424): 393. Bibcode:2012Natur.491..393G. doi:10.1038/nature11622. PMID 23151582.
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