Overview

Brief Summary

Brassicaceae is a large and complex family of considerable economic importance to humans. The family comprises 338 genera and 3709 species. Molecular phylogenetic analysis is not complete, but indicates a likely cladistic breakdown into about 33 tribes, which do not track perfectly with classical species morphologies.

Considerable activity has been conducted in the pursuit of maximizing productivity of various mustard and cabbage members of the family. Likewise considerable attention has been given to development of herbicides both for protection of Brassicaceae crops as well as control of wild weedy species of the family; benzothiadiazoles have been particularly effective in control of brassicaceae.

With the expanding use of Brassica and Arabidopsis species as model plant organisms, the family brassicaceae has assumed great importance in 21st century botany.
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Comprehensive Description

Description

Annual, biennial or perennial herbs. Stipules 0.  Leaves alternate. Flowers in racemes, usually bisexual,  hypogynous, actinomorphic. Sepals 4, free, in 2  series. Petals 4 (rarely 0). Stamens 6  (inner 4 long, outer 2 short). Ovary 2-locular.  Style 1. Stigmas 2. Fruit dry, usually a dehiscent siliqua or silicula, opening from below by 2 valves, sometimes breaking into segments transversely, sometimes indehiscent.
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Ecology

Associations

Foodplant / feeds on
Aeolothrips intermedius feeds on flower of Brassicaceae
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / feeds on
adult of Aeolothrips tenuicornis feeds on live flower of Brassicaceae

Foodplant / gall
Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes gall of stem (base, or just below) of Brassicaceae

Foodplant / gall
Albugo causes gall of stem of Brassicaceae

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / false gall
colony of Albugo candida causes swelling of live, discoloured, distorted leaf of Brassicaceae
Remarks: season: spring, early autumn

Foodplant / spot causer
amphigenous colony of Alternaria dematiaceous anamorph of Alternaria brassicicola causes spots on live leaf of Brassicaceae

Foodplant / nest
female of Andrena niveata provisions nest with pollen of Brassicaceae

Foodplant / gall
Aphis brassicae causes gall of leaf of Brassicaceae

Foodplant / open feeder
gregarious larva of Athalia glabricollis grazes on leaf (underside) of Brassicaceae

Foodplant / open feeder
gregarious larva of Athalia lugens grazes on leaf (underside) of Brassicaceae
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / open feeder
gregarious larva of Athalia rosae grazes on leaf (underside) of Brassicaceae

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Baris lepidii feeds on Brassicaceae

Foodplant / gall
larva of Ceutorhynchus assimilis causes gall of live root of Brassicaceae
Remarks: season: 3-

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Ceutorhynchus contractus feeds on Brassicaceae

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Ceutorhynchus floralis feeds on Brassicaceae

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Ceutorhynchus hepaticus feeds on Brassicaceae

Foodplant / feeds on
Ceutorhynchus pallidactylus feeds on Brassicaceae

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Ceutorhynchus rapae feeds on Brassicaceae

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Ceutorhynchus sulcicollis feeds on Brassicaceae

Foodplant / gall
larva of Dasineura sisymbrii causes gall of inflorescence of Brassicaceae

Foodplant / sap sucker
nymph of Eurydema dominulus sucks sap of Brassicaceae

Foodplant / sap sucker
adult of Eurydema oleracea sucks sap of Brassicaceae

Foodplant / miner
larva of Liriomyza strigata mines leaf of Brassicaceae

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Meligethes coracinus feeds on Brassicaceae

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Meligethes viridescens feeds on live flower bud pollen of Brassicaceae

Foodplant / parasite
colony of sporangium of Peronospora parasitica parasitises live Brassicaceae
Remarks: season: 1-4

Foodplant / open feeder
adult of Phaedon cochleariae grazes on live leaf of Brassicaceae
Remarks: season: 5-9

Plant / resting place / on
puparium of Phytomyza rufipes may be found on stem of Brassicaceae

Foodplant / gall
Plasmodiophora brassicae causes gall of swollen, distorted, often fused root of Brassicaceae
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / open feeder
imago of Psylliodes chrysocephala grazes on leaf of Brassicaceae

Foodplant / open feeder
imago of Psylliodes napi grazes on leaf of Brassicaceae

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Thrips angusticeps feeds on live Brassicaceae
Remarks: season: 4-7

Foodplant / pathogen
Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris infects and damages live, yellow-blotched leaf of Brassicaceae

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
                                        
Specimen Records:2,225Public Records:1,197
Specimens with Sequences:1,993Public Species:399
Specimens with Barcodes:1,950Public BINs:0
Species:527         
Species With Barcodes:506         
          
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Barcode data

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Locations of barcode samples

Collection Sites: world map showing specimen collection locations for Brassicaceae

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Wikipedia

Lobularia

Lobularia is a genus of five species of flowering plants in the family Brassicaceae, closely related to (and formerly often included in) the genus Alyssum. The genus is native to Macaronesia and the Mediterranean region, and comprises annuals and perennials growing to 10–40 cm (4–16 in) tall, with hairy oblong-oval leaves and clusters of cross-shaped (cruciform), fragrant white flowers.[1]

The name Lobularia derives from the Greek for a small pod, referring to the fruits.

Selected species

Cultivation and uses[edit source | edit]

Lobularia maritima (sweet alyssum; syn. Alyssum maritimum) is a very popular garden plant, ; it has become widely naturalised throughout the temperate world.

References[edit source | edit]

  1. ^ RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 1405332964. 
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Mustard plant

Mustards are several plant species in the genera Brassica and Sinapis whose small mustard seeds are used as a spice and, by grinding and mixing them with water, vinegar or other liquids, are turned into the condiment known as mustard or prepared mustard. The seeds are also pressed to make mustard oil, and the edible leaves can be eaten as mustard greens.

Contents

Varieties

Indian mustard plant

Mild white mustard (Sinapis hirta) grows wild in North Africa, the Middle East and Mediterranean Europe, and has spread farther by long cultivation; oriental mustard (Brassica juncea), originally from the foothills of the Himalaya, is grown commercially in Canada, the UK, Denmark and the US; black mustard (Brassica nigra) is grown in Argentina, Chile, the US and some European countries. Canada and Nepal are the world's major producers of mustard seed, between them accounting for around 57% of world production in 2010.[1]

In addition to the mustards, the genus Brassica also includes cabbages, cauliflower, rapeseed, and turnips.

Although some varieties of mustard plants were well-established crops in Hellenistic and Roman times, Zohary and Hopf note: "There are almost no archeological records available for any of these crops." Wild forms of mustard and its relatives the radish and turnip can be found over west Asia and Europe, suggesting their domestication took place somewhere in that area. However, Zohary and Hopf conclude: "Suggestions as to the origins of these plants are necessarily based on linguistic considerations."[2]

There has been recent research into varieties of mustards that have a high oil content for use in the production of biodiesel, a renewable liquid fuel similar to diesel fuel. The biodiesel made from mustard oil has good cold flow properties and cetane ratings. The leftover meal after pressing out the oil has also been found to be an effective pesticide.[3]

An interesting genetic relationship between many species of mustard has been observed, and is described as the Triangle of U.

Diseases

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ "FAOSTAT Countries by Commodity". UN Food and Agriculture Organization. http://faostat.fao.org/site/339/default.aspx. Retrieved 2012-05-08. 
  2. ^ 1Zohary, Daniel; Hopf, Maria (2000). Domestication of plants in the Old World (Third Edition ed.). Oxford: University Press. p. 139. 
  3. ^ [1][dead link]


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