Overview

Comprehensive Description

The striped anemone, Haliplanella lineata, is a small, greenish anemone with white or orange stripes and usually 50-60 (and as many as 100) fully retractile, transparent or slightly colored tentacles. The body is smooth and cylindrical (Eldredge and Smith 2001).A number of distinct morphs of this species, based on body color and stripe pattern were identified several decades ago, although these may actually represent points along a gradient in appearance (Uchida 1932, Shick and Lamb 1977).
  • Barnes R.S.K. 1994. The brackish-water fauna of northwestern Europe. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
  • Bumann D. 1995. Localization of Digestion Activities in the Sea Anemone Haliplanella luciae. Biological Bulletin 189: 236-237.
  • Carlton J.T. 1979. History, biogeography, and ecology of the introduced marine and estuarine invertebrates of the Pacific coast of North America. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Davis. 904 pp.
  • Cohen A.N. 2005 Guide to the Exotic Species of San Francisco Bay. San Francisco Estuary Institute, Oakland, CA. Available online at exoticsguide.org.
  • Dunn F.D. 1982. Sexual reproduction of two intertidal sea anemones (Colenerata: Actiniaria) in Malaysia. Biotropica 14:262-271.
  • Eldredge L.G. and C.M. Smith. 2001. A guidebook of introduced marine species in Hawaii. Bihosp Museum Technical Report 21.
  • Gollasch, S. and K. Riemann-Zurneck. 1996. Transoceanic dispersal of benthic macrofauna: Haliplanella lineata (Verrill, 1898) (Anthozoa, Actinaria) found on a ship's hull in a ship yard dock in Hamburg Harbour, Germany. Helgolander Meeresuntersuchungen, 50:253-258.
  • Sassaman and Magnum 1970. Patterns of temperature adaptation in North American coastal actinians. Marine Biology 7:123-130.
  • Shick J.M. and A.N. Lamb. 1977. Asexual Reproduction and Genetic Population Structure in the Colonizing Sea Anemone Haliplanella luciae. Biological Bulletin 153:604-617.
  • Slick J.M. 1991. A functional biology of sea anemones. Chapman and Hall, London.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Biology: Nematocysts

More info
LocationImageCnidae TypeRange of
Lengths (m)
Range of
Widths (m)
nNState
Carlgren O., 1945
Acontia
N/A basitrichs  14 - 18.3  x   - 2.2  /
N/A microbasic p-mastigophores  32.4 - 48  x  4.2 - 6.5  /
Actinopharynx
N/A microbasic p-mastigophores  19.7 - 25  x  3.5 - 4.2  /
Column
N/A basitrichs  10 - 12  x   - 1.5  /
N/A basitrichs  15.5 - 19.7  x  2.5 - 2.8  /
N/A microbasic amastigophores or p-mastigophores  12.7 - 16.9  x  1.5 - 4.2  /
Filaments
N/A basitrichs  18.3 - 22.6  x   - 2.8  /
N/A microbasic p-mastigophores  9.2 - 12.7  x  2.8 - 3.5  /
N/A microbasic p-mastigophores or amastigophores  18.3 - 21  x  4.2 - 4.9  /
N/A microbasic p-mastigophores or amastigophores  22.6 - 28.2  x  3.5 - 4.2  /
Tentacles
N/A basitrichs  11.5 - 15.5  x  2.5 - 2.8  /
N/A microbasic p-mastigophores  16.9 - 25.4  x  3.5 - 4.2  /
N/A spirocysts   -   x   -   /
Hand C. H., 1956
Acontia
basitrichs  13.5 - 20.5  x  2 - 3  71 / Unfired
microbasic amastigophores  12.5 - 19.5  x  3.5 - 4  61 / Unfired
microbasic p-mastigophores  29 - 47.5  x  5 - 6  78 / Unfired
Actinopharynx
basitrichs  12 - 21  x  2 - 2.5  93 / Unfired
microbasic p-mastigophores  18.5 - 25  x  3 - 4  62 / Unfired
Capitulum
basitrichs  9 - 12.5  x  1 - 1.5  72 / Unfired
microbasic amastigophores  9.5 - 14.5  x  3.5 - 4.5  80 / Unfired
Filaments
basitrichs  9 - 15  x  1 - 1.5  71 / Unfired
microbasic amastigophores  17 - 22.5  x  5 - 6  82 / Unfired
microbasic p-mastigophores  9 - 13.5  x  2.5 - 3.5  70 / Unfired
microbasic p-mastigophores  15 - 20.5  x  3.5 - 4  53 / Unfired
microbasic p-mastigophores  21.5 - 27  x  3 - 4  64 / Unfired
Scapus
basitrichs  10.5 - 16.5  x  2 - 3.5  60 / Unfired
microbasic p-mastigophores  12 - 16.5  x  3.5 - 4  77 / Unfired
Tentacles
basitrichs  10.5 - 19.5  x  1 - 1.5  85 / Unfired
microbasic amastigophores  9.5 - 14.5  x  3.5 - 4.5  64 / Unfired
microbasic p-mastigophores  18.5 - 27  x  3.5 - 4.5  75 / Unfired
spirocysts  13.5 - 22.5  x  3.5 - 4.5  67 / Unfired
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Hexacorallians of the World

Source: Hexacorallians of the World

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Description

The column of this sea anemone is distinctly divided into scapus and capitulum, with a pemanent parapet and fosse. The tentacles are slender, often very long, up to about 100 in number. Acontia are present, and are fairly readily emitted through holes in the column. Usually measures about 10mm across base but may be larger. The typical colour of the scapus is olive green or brownish, rarely pink, usually with vertical stripes of orange, yellow, or white. The capitulum, disc and tentacles are translucent grey or greenish, occasionally flecked with white or crimson. Reproduces by longitudinal fission - dividing vertically into two approximately equal parts Young specimens of Metridium senile may be similar in form but are never striped and do not reproduce by longitudinal fission. Small green specimens of Actinia equina may have irregular pale streaks on the column but always have warts in the fosse and shorter tentacles.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© National Museums Northern Ireland and its licensors

Source: Encyclopedia of Marine Life of Britain and Ireland

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Haliplanella lineata occurs intertidally to subtidally on solid substrata in protected areas.This U.S. non-native, presumed to have come from a native range encompassing the Pacific Coast of Asia, now occupies suitable marine habitats throughout the northern hemisphere. Introduced populations are known to occur in the British Isles and in Western Europe, in the Mediterranean Sea, and on both coasts of North America (Barnes 1994, Cohen 2005). On the U.S. east coast, the species can be found in Maine and from Massachusetts to Florida. (Shick and Lamb 1977). H. lineata has also been previously collected in Texas and from the Suez Canal but appears not to have become established in these locations (Cohen 2005). Haliplanella lineata is likely to occur throughout the India River Lagoon basins where hard fouling surfaces such as rocks, pier pilings, boat hulls, mangrove roots, and oyster shells are available.
  • Barnes R.S.K. 1994. The brackish-water fauna of northwestern Europe. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
  • Bumann D. 1995. Localization of Digestion Activities in the Sea Anemone Haliplanella luciae. Biological Bulletin 189: 236-237.
  • Carlton J.T. 1979. History, biogeography, and ecology of the introduced marine and estuarine invertebrates of the Pacific coast of North America. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Davis. 904 pp.
  • Cohen A.N. 2005 Guide to the Exotic Species of San Francisco Bay. San Francisco Estuary Institute, Oakland, CA. Available online at exoticsguide.org.
  • Dunn F.D. 1982. Sexual reproduction of two intertidal sea anemones (Colenerata: Actiniaria) in Malaysia. Biotropica 14:262-271.
  • Eldredge L.G. and C.M. Smith. 2001. A guidebook of introduced marine species in Hawaii. Bihosp Museum Technical Report 21.
  • Gollasch, S. and K. Riemann-Zurneck. 1996. Transoceanic dispersal of benthic macrofauna: Haliplanella lineata (Verrill, 1898) (Anthozoa, Actinaria) found on a ship's hull in a ship yard dock in Hamburg Harbour, Germany. Helgolander Meeresuntersuchungen, 50:253-258.
  • Sassaman and Magnum 1970. Patterns of temperature adaptation in North American coastal actinians. Marine Biology 7:123-130.
  • Shick J.M. and A.N. Lamb. 1977. Asexual Reproduction and Genetic Population Structure in the Colonizing Sea Anemone Haliplanella luciae. Biological Bulletin 153:604-617.
  • Slick J.M. 1991. A functional biology of sea anemones. Chapman and Hall, London.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Rather local but recorded on all British coasts. This anemone appears to have spread throughout the northern hemisphere during the past century, probably being carried on ship's bottoms or introduced with living oysters or other shellfish.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© National Museums Northern Ireland and its licensors

Source: Encyclopedia of Marine Life of Britain and Ireland

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Size

Haliplanella lineata is a small anemone, typically less than 4 cm in height and with a tentacular crown of around the same size (Eldredge and Smith 2001).
  • Barnes R.S.K. 1994. The brackish-water fauna of northwestern Europe. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
  • Bumann D. 1995. Localization of Digestion Activities in the Sea Anemone Haliplanella luciae. Biological Bulletin 189: 236-237.
  • Carlton J.T. 1979. History, biogeography, and ecology of the introduced marine and estuarine invertebrates of the Pacific coast of North America. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Davis. 904 pp.
  • Cohen A.N. 2005 Guide to the Exotic Species of San Francisco Bay. San Francisco Estuary Institute, Oakland, CA. Available online at exoticsguide.org.
  • Dunn F.D. 1982. Sexual reproduction of two intertidal sea anemones (Colenerata: Actiniaria) in Malaysia. Biotropica 14:262-271.
  • Eldredge L.G. and C.M. Smith. 2001. A guidebook of introduced marine species in Hawaii. Bihosp Museum Technical Report 21.
  • Gollasch, S. and K. Riemann-Zurneck. 1996. Transoceanic dispersal of benthic macrofauna: Haliplanella lineata (Verrill, 1898) (Anthozoa, Actinaria) found on a ship's hull in a ship yard dock in Hamburg Harbour, Germany. Helgolander Meeresuntersuchungen, 50:253-258.
  • Sassaman and Magnum 1970. Patterns of temperature adaptation in North American coastal actinians. Marine Biology 7:123-130.
  • Shick J.M. and A.N. Lamb. 1977. Asexual Reproduction and Genetic Population Structure in the Colonizing Sea Anemone Haliplanella luciae. Biological Bulletin 153:604-617.
  • Slick J.M. 1991. A functional biology of sea anemones. Chapman and Hall, London.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Look Alikes

Haliplanella lineata may be potentially confused with other co-occurring anemones in the IRL, such as the pale anamone (Aiptasia pallida) and the warty anemone (Bunodosoma cavernata). The body of A. pallida is pale to brownish, more slender than that of H. lineata and lacking vertical stripes, possesses about half as many tentacles, and often irregular has pale rings around the tentacles. The tissues of A. pallida also typically harbor sumbiotic photosunthetic zooxanthellae, discernable vie microscopic examination. B. cavernata is typically brownish green with pale bluish columnar dots (warts) on its body.
  • Barnes R.S.K. 1994. The brackish-water fauna of northwestern Europe. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
  • Bumann D. 1995. Localization of Digestion Activities in the Sea Anemone Haliplanella luciae. Biological Bulletin 189: 236-237.
  • Carlton J.T. 1979. History, biogeography, and ecology of the introduced marine and estuarine invertebrates of the Pacific coast of North America. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Davis. 904 pp.
  • Cohen A.N. 2005 Guide to the Exotic Species of San Francisco Bay. San Francisco Estuary Institute, Oakland, CA. Available online at exoticsguide.org.
  • Dunn F.D. 1982. Sexual reproduction of two intertidal sea anemones (Colenerata: Actiniaria) in Malaysia. Biotropica 14:262-271.
  • Eldredge L.G. and C.M. Smith. 2001. A guidebook of introduced marine species in Hawaii. Bihosp Museum Technical Report 21.
  • Gollasch, S. and K. Riemann-Zurneck. 1996. Transoceanic dispersal of benthic macrofauna: Haliplanella lineata (Verrill, 1898) (Anthozoa, Actinaria) found on a ship's hull in a ship yard dock in Hamburg Harbour, Germany. Helgolander Meeresuntersuchungen, 50:253-258.
  • Sassaman and Magnum 1970. Patterns of temperature adaptation in North American coastal actinians. Marine Biology 7:123-130.
  • Shick J.M. and A.N. Lamb. 1977. Asexual Reproduction and Genetic Population Structure in the Colonizing Sea Anemone Haliplanella luciae. Biological Bulletin 153:604-617.
  • Slick J.M. 1991. A functional biology of sea anemones. Chapman and Hall, London.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 1 specimen in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 0
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Depth range based on 11 specimens in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 26

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 26
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Depth range based on 1 specimen in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 0
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Usually found on the shore but may also occur in the shallow sublittoral. Lives in pools attached to rocks or shells, frequently amongst mussels. Also occurs in brackish-water creeks and lagoons, in estuaries, etc. Frequently found in harbours or other places near shipping lanes.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© National Museums Northern Ireland and its licensors

Source: Encyclopedia of Marine Life of Britain and Ireland

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Migration

Alien species

De groene golfbrekeranemoon Diadumene lineata is een anemoon die oorspronkelijk enkel terug te vinden was in de Aziatische Stille Oceaan en rond Japan. Transport door vasthechting op scheepsrompen of via aquacultuur samen met kweekoesters zou deze anemoon naar Europa gebracht hebben tegen het einde van de 19e eeuw. Pas in 1998 werd de groene golfbrekeranemoon voor het eerst waargenomen langs onze kust, namelijk in de Spuikom van Oostende. De soort is goed bestand tegen wisselende omgevingsfactoren en kan zich razendsnel voortplanten.
  • VLIZ Alien Species Consortium
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Alien species

The green anemone Diadumene lineata is an anemone (Anthozoa) originally only found in the northwestern part of the Pacific Ocean and around Japan. Transport by attachment to ship hulls or through aquaculture with oysters would have brought this anemone to Europe by the end of the 19th century. The green anemone was reported for the first time in Belgium in 1998, in the Ostend Sluice dock. The species is able to deal well with changing environmental factors, and has the ability to reproduce very quickly.
  • VLIZ Alien Species Consortium
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Trophic Strategy

Haliplanella lineata is a carnivore that preys largely on water column protists and small crustaceans and other invertebrates (Bumann 1995).
  • Barnes R.S.K. 1994. The brackish-water fauna of northwestern Europe. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
  • Bumann D. 1995. Localization of Digestion Activities in the Sea Anemone Haliplanella luciae. Biological Bulletin 189: 236-237.
  • Carlton J.T. 1979. History, biogeography, and ecology of the introduced marine and estuarine invertebrates of the Pacific coast of North America. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Davis. 904 pp.
  • Cohen A.N. 2005 Guide to the Exotic Species of San Francisco Bay. San Francisco Estuary Institute, Oakland, CA. Available online at exoticsguide.org.
  • Dunn F.D. 1982. Sexual reproduction of two intertidal sea anemones (Colenerata: Actiniaria) in Malaysia. Biotropica 14:262-271.
  • Eldredge L.G. and C.M. Smith. 2001. A guidebook of introduced marine species in Hawaii. Bihosp Museum Technical Report 21.
  • Gollasch, S. and K. Riemann-Zurneck. 1996. Transoceanic dispersal of benthic macrofauna: Haliplanella lineata (Verrill, 1898) (Anthozoa, Actinaria) found on a ship's hull in a ship yard dock in Hamburg Harbour, Germany. Helgolander Meeresuntersuchungen, 50:253-258.
  • Sassaman and Magnum 1970. Patterns of temperature adaptation in North American coastal actinians. Marine Biology 7:123-130.
  • Shick J.M. and A.N. Lamb. 1977. Asexual Reproduction and Genetic Population Structure in the Colonizing Sea Anemone Haliplanella luciae. Biological Bulletin 153:604-617.
  • Slick J.M. 1991. A functional biology of sea anemones. Chapman and Hall, London.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Associations

None reported.Invasion History: Unlike many past marine introductions, the historic spread of H. lineata to U.S. waters is well chronicled with the earliest biogeographic records dating to New Haven, Connecticut in 1892. Carlton (1979) indicates that this western Pacific (Japan, China, and Hong Kong) native was also present on the Pacific coast of North America within a decade of its arrival on the east coast.Human-mediated dispersal modes historically contributing to the spread of the species include attachment to ship hulls and accidental inclusion in commercial shipments of oysters and seaweed (Shick and Lamb 1977, Gollasch and Riemann-Zurneck 1996, Cohen 2005). Hull fouling from Japan is the likely source of the initial east coast introduction while oyster shipments (Crassostrea virginica) from the Atlantic states to California likely led to introduction within san Francisco Bay. Hull fouling from New England probably led to introduction of H. lineata in Great Britain which had been confirmed by 1896.Physiological tolerance with regard to several abiotic factors (see above), combined with the ability to propagate asexually are likely key reasons for the success of H. lineata as an invasive species (Gollasch and Riemann-Zurneck 1996). Potential to Compete With Natives: Competitive interactions between introduced Haliplanella lineata and native species have not been studied, but are presumed to be minimal. Possible Economic Consequences of Invasion: The economic impacts of H. lineata introduction have not been studied, but are presumed to be minimal.
  • Barnes R.S.K. 1994. The brackish-water fauna of northwestern Europe. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
  • Bumann D. 1995. Localization of Digestion Activities in the Sea Anemone Haliplanella luciae. Biological Bulletin 189: 236-237.
  • Carlton J.T. 1979. History, biogeography, and ecology of the introduced marine and estuarine invertebrates of the Pacific coast of North America. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Davis. 904 pp.
  • Cohen A.N. 2005 Guide to the Exotic Species of San Francisco Bay. San Francisco Estuary Institute, Oakland, CA. Available online at exoticsguide.org.
  • Dunn F.D. 1982. Sexual reproduction of two intertidal sea anemones (Colenerata: Actiniaria) in Malaysia. Biotropica 14:262-271.
  • Eldredge L.G. and C.M. Smith. 2001. A guidebook of introduced marine species in Hawaii. Bihosp Museum Technical Report 21.
  • Gollasch, S. and K. Riemann-Zurneck. 1996. Transoceanic dispersal of benthic macrofauna: Haliplanella lineata (Verrill, 1898) (Anthozoa, Actinaria) found on a ship's hull in a ship yard dock in Hamburg Harbour, Germany. Helgolander Meeresuntersuchungen, 50:253-258.
  • Sassaman and Magnum 1970. Patterns of temperature adaptation in North American coastal actinians. Marine Biology 7:123-130.
  • Shick J.M. and A.N. Lamb. 1977. Asexual Reproduction and Genetic Population Structure in the Colonizing Sea Anemone Haliplanella luciae. Biological Bulletin 153:604-617.
  • Slick J.M. 1991. A functional biology of sea anemones. Chapman and Hall, London.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Population Biology

Localized Haliplanella lineata populations are often ephemeral as well as irruptive, suddenly appearing in sizeable numbers and then after a time disappearing just as abruptly (Shick and Lamb 1977).
  • Barnes R.S.K. 1994. The brackish-water fauna of northwestern Europe. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
  • Bumann D. 1995. Localization of Digestion Activities in the Sea Anemone Haliplanella luciae. Biological Bulletin 189: 236-237.
  • Carlton J.T. 1979. History, biogeography, and ecology of the introduced marine and estuarine invertebrates of the Pacific coast of North America. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Davis. 904 pp.
  • Cohen A.N. 2005 Guide to the Exotic Species of San Francisco Bay. San Francisco Estuary Institute, Oakland, CA. Available online at exoticsguide.org.
  • Dunn F.D. 1982. Sexual reproduction of two intertidal sea anemones (Colenerata: Actiniaria) in Malaysia. Biotropica 14:262-271.
  • Eldredge L.G. and C.M. Smith. 2001. A guidebook of introduced marine species in Hawaii. Bihosp Museum Technical Report 21.
  • Gollasch, S. and K. Riemann-Zurneck. 1996. Transoceanic dispersal of benthic macrofauna: Haliplanella lineata (Verrill, 1898) (Anthozoa, Actinaria) found on a ship's hull in a ship yard dock in Hamburg Harbour, Germany. Helgolander Meeresuntersuchungen, 50:253-258.
  • Sassaman and Magnum 1970. Patterns of temperature adaptation in North American coastal actinians. Marine Biology 7:123-130.
  • Shick J.M. and A.N. Lamb. 1977. Asexual Reproduction and Genetic Population Structure in the Colonizing Sea Anemone Haliplanella luciae. Biological Bulletin 153:604-617.
  • Slick J.M. 1991. A functional biology of sea anemones. Chapman and Hall, London.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

Like other anemones, Haliplanella lineata can reproduce asexually or sexually (Slick 1991, Coheh 2005). Asexual propagation may be by means of longitudinal fission (splitting in half along a vertical plane) or through pedal laceration (pulling away from its point of attachment and leaving bits of tissue to be regenerated). Sexual reproduction occurs through the release of gametes into the water column and subsequent external fertiliztion (Shick and Lamb 1977). Carlton (1979) indicates that sexual reproduction occurs only infrequently outside of this species' native range.
  • Barnes R.S.K. 1994. The brackish-water fauna of northwestern Europe. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
  • Bumann D. 1995. Localization of Digestion Activities in the Sea Anemone Haliplanella luciae. Biological Bulletin 189: 236-237.
  • Carlton J.T. 1979. History, biogeography, and ecology of the introduced marine and estuarine invertebrates of the Pacific coast of North America. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Davis. 904 pp.
  • Cohen A.N. 2005 Guide to the Exotic Species of San Francisco Bay. San Francisco Estuary Institute, Oakland, CA. Available online at exoticsguide.org.
  • Dunn F.D. 1982. Sexual reproduction of two intertidal sea anemones (Colenerata: Actiniaria) in Malaysia. Biotropica 14:262-271.
  • Eldredge L.G. and C.M. Smith. 2001. A guidebook of introduced marine species in Hawaii. Bihosp Museum Technical Report 21.
  • Gollasch, S. and K. Riemann-Zurneck. 1996. Transoceanic dispersal of benthic macrofauna: Haliplanella lineata (Verrill, 1898) (Anthozoa, Actinaria) found on a ship's hull in a ship yard dock in Hamburg Harbour, Germany. Helgolander Meeresuntersuchungen, 50:253-258.
  • Sassaman and Magnum 1970. Patterns of temperature adaptation in North American coastal actinians. Marine Biology 7:123-130.
  • Shick J.M. and A.N. Lamb. 1977. Asexual Reproduction and Genetic Population Structure in the Colonizing Sea Anemone Haliplanella luciae. Biological Bulletin 153:604-617.
  • Slick J.M. 1991. A functional biology of sea anemones. Chapman and Hall, London.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Growth

Embryonic development in Haliplanella lineata occurs via a free-living planktonic stage persisting in the water column for an unknown duration.
  • Barnes R.S.K. 1994. The brackish-water fauna of northwestern Europe. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
  • Bumann D. 1995. Localization of Digestion Activities in the Sea Anemone Haliplanella luciae. Biological Bulletin 189: 236-237.
  • Carlton J.T. 1979. History, biogeography, and ecology of the introduced marine and estuarine invertebrates of the Pacific coast of North America. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Davis. 904 pp.
  • Cohen A.N. 2005 Guide to the Exotic Species of San Francisco Bay. San Francisco Estuary Institute, Oakland, CA. Available online at exoticsguide.org.
  • Dunn F.D. 1982. Sexual reproduction of two intertidal sea anemones (Colenerata: Actiniaria) in Malaysia. Biotropica 14:262-271.
  • Eldredge L.G. and C.M. Smith. 2001. A guidebook of introduced marine species in Hawaii. Bihosp Museum Technical Report 21.
  • Gollasch, S. and K. Riemann-Zurneck. 1996. Transoceanic dispersal of benthic macrofauna: Haliplanella lineata (Verrill, 1898) (Anthozoa, Actinaria) found on a ship's hull in a ship yard dock in Hamburg Harbour, Germany. Helgolander Meeresuntersuchungen, 50:253-258.
  • Sassaman and Magnum 1970. Patterns of temperature adaptation in North American coastal actinians. Marine Biology 7:123-130.
  • Shick J.M. and A.N. Lamb. 1977. Asexual Reproduction and Genetic Population Structure in the Colonizing Sea Anemone Haliplanella luciae. Biological Bulletin 153:604-617.
  • Slick J.M. 1991. A functional biology of sea anemones. Chapman and Hall, London.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Haliplanella lineata

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Diadumene lineata

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Genomic DNA is available from 1 specimen with morphological vouchers housed at Australia Museum
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Ocean Genome Legacy

Source: Ocean Genome Resource

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Orange-Striped Sea Anemone

The orange-striped green sea anemone has several morphotypes which have been described multiple times, and the currently accepted species name is Diadumene lineata.

Description[edit]

This is a smaller species, measuring approximately 3.5 centimeters in diameter across its tentacles and 3 centimeters in height. Its central column is green-gray to brown color and smooth. The column, which houses the gastro vascular central cavity extends from the mouth to the attached base called the pedal disc. It does not always have vertical stripes, which can be orange or white. There are 50 to 100 slender and tapered tentacles which are able to retract completely into the column. They are commonly transparent and can be gray or light green with white flecks (Christine 2001). Many morphs occur for this species: Sagartia lineata (Verill, 1869 Hong Kong), Diadumene lineata (Verill 1870); Diaumene luciae (Stephenson, 1925); Haliplanella luciae (Hand, 1955); Properly named D. lineata (Hand 1989). In a single population there may be one or several functioning variations of the species description (Hand, 1955b; Williams, 1973b).[1][2] Population studies exhibiting morphs of several different communities were done along with personal communication from the following individuals (Parker 1919, Allee 1923, Stephenson 1935). An un-striped population was found by D.F. Dunn in San Francisco Bay, California. Two morphs were found, one with twelve orange stripes on a green-brown column and one with 48 paired white stripes on a green column. These population studies were done in Indian Field Creek, Virginia and Barnstable Town Dock, Massachusetts by C.P. Mangum.

Distribution and ecology[edit]

This species originated from the Pacific coast of Asia, but is currently found in the Northern Hemisphere. It has been found in Japan,[3] the Gulf of Mexico (Verrill), Plymouth and Wells, Norfolk, England (R.B. Williams), Western Europe,[4] the Mediterranean Sea, the Suez Canal, Malaysia (D. F. Dunn, California Academy of Sciences), and North America on the East Coast from Maine to Florida (L. L. Minasian, Myers 1977, Stephenson 1935, Sassaman and Mangum 1970, Shick, J. H. Ting 1983, Uchida 1932, G. M. Watson, W. E. Zamer 1999).[5] It has also been found in Hawaii and other sites of the Pacific Ocean.[6] Recently it has appeared in Argentina and other localities of South America.[7] Distribution away from Asia may have occurred by attachment to ship bottoms, oyster shipments, and seaweed. These anemones target ecosystems that are barren landscapes or with low species diversity. Appearing suddenly, populations quickly proliferate and colonize zones and alter natural balances. Within short durations, they are known to vanish from the area quickly with no warning (Stephenson 1953). It is a member of the fouling community, but does not cause significant economic impacts.

Eurytolerance[edit]

Diadumene anemones display high tolerance to inter-tidal exposure and drying out in extreme summer heat. They form encystments when locked in freezing climates. They acclimatize to severely low salinities. In Blue Hill Flls, Maine 100 percent survival of a population of 4000 individuals was observed after two weeks of temperatures of 1.0°- 27.5 °C, and salinities of 0.5 - 35‰.[8]

Genetic character[edit]

Physiological races, which are eurytolerant (tolerant of extreme environments) diverse species, that exhibit different resistances in remote and secluded places. [9] This species demonstrates strong genetic selection of certain physiological strains (Prosser 1957).

Reproduction[edit]

While the sea anemone can reproduce sexually and asexually, it reproduces mainly by sexual methods. With external fertilization, gametes or eggs are ejected into the open sea where zygotes develop into planular or free swimming larvae, which finally settle to the polyp stage. Populations that are situated close to the origin show sexual reproductive methods, while dispersal populations exhibit cloning behavior by asexual colonization. However, the anemone is able to produce asexually, through including longitudinal fission. The asexual process is where a new polyp develops from a portion of the original polyp after pulling away (anemone splits in half). Native populations and possibly well adapted populations may reproduce sexually.

Catch/feeding tentacles[edit]

Anemones, like all cnidarians, have nematocysts, which are stinging organelles used for defense and catching prey. Studies of nematocyst development on tentacle tips of this and several species reveals several different stages of tentacle morphology (Watson and Mariscal, Florida State University 1983). Comparisons to hydrozoans in terms of growth stages or bulb pulses of tentacle development are explained by growth of individual tentacles by widening or an increasing length of the column (Campbell 1980). The nematocysts are found on both catch tentacles and feeding tentacles. The catch tentacles used for aggression and capturing of prey have larger length and width than feeding tentacles, which aid in the capture of food. Feeding tentacles are displaced by catch tentacles during growth cycles, and migrate towards the central column. This is commonly found in aggressive sea anemones who share food sources.[10] During aggressive interactions, individual catch tentacles will strike a non-clone-mate in the upper column or tentacles. They break when withdrawn, separating the nematocyst—containing tip from the remaining tentacle. This can have life-threatening consequences, such as necrosis (cellular death) for the struck organism.

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Omori, S (1895). "Sagartia from Masaki". Zoological Magazine of Tokyo 7: 377–380. 
  2. ^ Uchida, T (1932). "Occurrence in Japan of Diadumene luciae, a remarkable actinian of rapid dispersal". Journal of the Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University,Series 6, Zoology 2: 69–82. 
  3. ^ Fukui, Yoko (1991). "Embryonic and larval development of the sea anemone Haliplanella lineata from Japan". In R. B. Williams, P. F. S. Cornelius, R. G. Hughes, E. A. Robson. Coelenterate Biology: Recent Research on Cnidaria and Ctenophora. Dordrecht: Springer-Science+Business Media. pp. 137–142. ISBN 978-94-011-3240-4. 
  4. ^ Gollasch, S.; Riemann-Zürneck, K. (June 1996). "Transoceanic dispersal of benthic macrofauna:Haliplanella luciae (Verrill, 1898) (Anthozoa, Actiniaria) found on a ship's hull in a shipyard dock in Hamburg Harbour, Germany". Helgoländer Meeresuntersuchungen 50 (2): 253–258. doi:10.1007/BF02367154. 
  5. ^ Bumann, Dirk (October 1, 1995). "Localization of Digestion Activities in the Sea Anemone Haliplanella luciae". The Biological Bulletin 189 (2): 236–237. Retrieved 23 April 2014. 
  6. ^ Eldredge, L.G.; C.M. Smith (2001). A guidebook of introduced marine species in Hawaii. Bishop Museum Technical Report 21. pp. B19–B20. Retrieved 23 April 2014. 
  7. ^ Molina, Lucas M.; Valiñas, Macarena S.; Pratolongo, Paula D.; Elias, Rodolfo; Perillo, Gerardo M. E. (24 March 2008). "First record of the sea anemone Diadumene lineata (Verrill 1871) associated to Spartina alterniflora roots and stems, in marshes at the Bahia Blanca estuary, Argentina". Biological Invasions 11 (2): 409–416. doi:10.1007/s10530-008-9258-6. 
  8. ^ Shick, J. Malcolm; Lamb, Allen N. (December 1977). "Asexual Reproduction and Genetic Population Structure in the Colonizing Sea Anemone Haliplanella luciae". Biological Bulletin 153 (3): 604. doi:10.2307/1540609. 
  9. ^ Stauber, Leslie A. (January 1950). "The Problem of Physiological Species with Special Reference to Oysters and Oyster Drills". Ecology 31 (1): 109–118. doi:10.2307/1931365. 
  10. ^ Watson, Glen M.; Mariscal, Richard N. (June 1983). "The Development of a Sea Anemone Tentacle Specialized for Aggression: Morphogenesis and Regression of the Catch Tentacle of Haliplanella luciae (Cnidaria, Anthozoa)". Biological Bulletin 164 (3): 506. doi:10.2307/1541259. 
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!