Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology: Nematocysts

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LocationImageCnidae TypeRange of
Lengths (m)
Range of
Widths (m)
nNState
Carlgren O., 1945
Actinopharynx
N/A basitrichs  20.4 - 26.1  x  3.5 - 4.2  /
N/A basitrichs  17.6 - 22.6  x  3.5 - 4  /
N/A microbasic p-mastigophores  21.1 - 28.2  x  5 - 5.6  /
N/A microbasic p-mastigophores  24 - 28.2  x  5.6 - 6  /
N/A microbasic p-mastigophores  18.3 - 19.7  x   - 6.5  /
Column
N/A basitrichs  22.6 - 26.1  x  3 - 3.5  (4.2) /
N/A basitrichs  19 - 23.3  x  2.8 - 3.5  /
N/A microbasic p-mastigophores  31.8 - 36.7  x  4 - 5.5  /
N/A microbasic p-mastigophores  24 - 38.1  x  5.6 - 6.8  /
Filaments
N/A basitrichs  10 - 12.7  x   - 2.2  /
N/A microbasic p-mastigophores  22.6 - 28.2  x  4.2 - 5.5  /
N/A microbasic p-mastigophores  24 - 28.2  x  5.5 - 6  /
N/A microbasic p-mastigophores  18.3 - 21.1  x  5.6 - 6.5  /
Tentacles
N/A basitrichs  21.1 - 24  x  3.5 - 4.9  /
N/A basitrichs  19.7 - 22.6  x  3 - 3.5  /
N/A microbasic p-mastigophores  29.6 - 33.8  x  5 - 6.5  /
N/A spirocysts   -   x   -   /
N/A spirocysts   -   x   -   /
Dunn D. F., 1981
Actinopharynx
basitrichs  9 - 12.5  (15.4) x (1.8)  2.5 - 3.1  33 / 12 Unfired
basitrichs  16.7 - 28.2  x  2.9 - 5.6  343 / 33 Unfired
microbasic p-mastigophores (23)  24.6 - 37.5  (45) x  5 - 7.7  206 / 26 Unfired
spirocysts  21.3 - 30.8  x  2.9 - 4.1  11 / 3 Unfired
Column
basitrichs (17.9)  19.2 - 30.8  (32) x (2.5)  3 - 5.2  (6.1) 339 / 35 Unfired
basitrichs  8.2 - 14.4  x  2 - 3.8  125 / 16 Unfired
microbasic p-mastigophores  30.7 - 42.5  (52.5) x (5)  5.6 - 7.7  (8.9) 99 / 21 Unfired
spirocysts  17.2 - 37.5  x  2 - 4.3  21 / 4 Unfired
Filaments
basitrichs (7.7)  10.7 - 18  (21.5) x  1.2 - 3.3  (4.3) 239 / 31 Unfired
basitrichs (17.9)  19.7 - 29.3  x (2.5)  3.1 - 6.1  (7.1) 142 / 29 Unfired
microbasic p-mastigophores (16.4)  20 - 34.9  (41) x  3.8 - 7.2  (8.3) 298 / 37 Unfired
spirocysts  20 - 28.7  (30.3) x  2.8 - 4.1  13 / 7 Unfired
Tentacles
basitrichs (6.8)  9.8 - 15.4  x  1.6 - 3  (3.5) 69 / 12 Unfired
basitrichs  17.4 - 30.8  (32) x (2.4)  3.3 - 5.9  (7.1) 510 / 45 Unfired
spirocysts (14.8)  16.4 - 32  (34.4) x  2.4 - 4.6  (6) 238 / 45 Unfired
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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 6 specimens in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 2 - 2
 
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Depth range based on 19 specimens in 4 taxa.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 7 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 200
  Temperature range (°C): 19.168 - 27.490
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.195 - 3.955
  Salinity (PPS): 34.598 - 35.195
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.423 - 4.785
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.085 - 0.326
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.983 - 5.058

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 200

Temperature range (°C): 19.168 - 27.490

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.195 - 3.955

Salinity (PPS): 34.598 - 35.195

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.423 - 4.785

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.085 - 0.326

Silicate (umol/l): 0.983 - 5.058
 
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Associations

Biological Associations

More info
Algal symbionts
Zooxanthellae
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Wikipedia

Bubble-tip anemone

Entacmaea quadricolor, commonly called bubble-tip anemone among other vernacular names, is a species of sea anemone in the family Actiniidae. Like several anemone species, E. quadricolor can support several clownfish species, and displays two growth types based on where they live in the water column, one of which gives it the common name, due to the bulbous tips on its tentacles.

Distribution[edit]

Entacmaea quadricolor is widespread throughout the tropical waters of the Indo-Pacific area, including the Red Sea.[3]


Amphiprion melanopus anemonefish in a bubble anemone from East Timor

E. quadricolor anemones appear in a variety of morphs, including rose, orange, red, and standard green. This sea anemone can grow to be up to 30 centimetres (0.98 ft) in diameter, and obtains the majority of its energy from solar radiation via its symbiotic zooxanthellae.

A characteristic of E. quadricolor is its ability to maintain a symbiotic relationship with the clownfish, which can be "hosted" by the anemone by providing it with defence against predators and also providing some nourishment. In turn, the anemone provides the clownfish with shelter.

Nutrients are generally obtained by filter feeding using its sweeping tentacles, or through wastes and debris cleaned from the surface of its partner clownfish.

In the wild, E. quadricolor are found in two locations. Large adult specimens, with tentacles that are more streaming or stringy, are often found in deeper waters with more dimly lit conditions. These specimens are often solitary, while smaller, younger specimens are often located in groups or colonies nearer to the surface, in bright sunlight. These specimens tend to show the bulbous tips on their tentacles that are characteristic of E. quadricolor. The tips of the anemones remain not bulbuous as long as it is not hosted by a commensal fish.[4]

Association[edit]

Shrimp on Red Sea bubble-tip anemone

In the wild, this anemone is a natural host of several species of anemonefishes, including the cinnamon (Amphiprion melanopus), tomato (A. frenatus), orange-fin (A. chrysopterus), Clark's (A. clarkii), false percula (A. ocellaris), percula (A. percula) and maroon (Premnas biaculeatus), as well as shrimps.

Aquaculture[edit]

A group of individuals

In aquariums, E. quadricolor will reproduce asexually when in proper care with supplemented minerals such as iodine and other trace elements, usually purchased as an enrichment cocktail by most home aquarists. E. quadricolor is commonly kept in marine aquariums and comes in variety of colours, green being the most common.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Scott, Anna; Harrison, Peter L. (1 June 2008). "Larval settlement and juvenile development of sea anemones that provide habitat for anemonefish". Marine Biology (Berlin / Heidelberg: Springer) 154 (5): 833–839. doi:10.1007/s00227-008-0976-1. ISSN 0025-3162. 
  2. ^ Fautin, D. (2010). "Entacmaea quadricolor (Leuckart in Rüppell & Leuckart, 1828)". World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 2011-12-23. 
  3. ^ security (2014-02-09). "DORIS - FFESSM - Biologie et plongée - Faune et flore sous-marines et dulcicoles". Doris.ffessm.fr. Retrieved 2014-04-29. 
  4. ^ Fautin et Allen 1992, ch. 1, « Sea anemones : Entacmaea quadricolor (Rüppell & Leuckart, 1828)

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Media related to Entacmaea quadricolor at Wikimedia Commons
  • Marine Fish and Reef (2009). Article: True Sea Anemones by Vincent Hargreaves, PH.D.
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