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  • "Fly." Wikipedia. 2013. .
  • A. Grayson, “A few additions to the Yorkshire Diptera list”, Yorkshire Naturalists Union Bulletin, vol. 52, p. 36, 2009.
  • A. C. Twomey, The bird population of an elm-maple forest with special reference to aspection, territorialism, and coactions, Ecol. Monogr. 15(2):175-205, from p. 202 (1945).
  • Attenborough, David. 1979. Life on Earth. Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Company. 319 p.
  • B. E. Marshall, The fish of Lake McIlwaine. In Lake McIlwaine: the eutrophication and recovery of a tropical man-made lake (J. A. Thornton, Ed.) Vol 49 Monographia Biologicae, D. W. Junk Publishers, The Hague, pp. 156-188, from p. 180 (1982).
  • BIESMEIJER, J. C., ROBERTS, S. P. M., REEMER, M., OHLEMÜLLER, R., EDWARDS, M., PEETERS, T., SCHAFFERS, A. P., POTTS, S. G., KLEUKERS, R., THOMAS, C. D., SETTELE, J., AND W. E. KUNIN, W. E. 2006. Parallel declines in pollinators and insect-pollinated plants in Britain and the Netherlands. Science 313 (5785): 351-354.
  • Borror, Donald, Charles Triplehorn, and Norman Johnson. An Introduction to the Study of Insects. 6th ed. Saunders College Publishing, 1989. 499-575. Print.
  • Brunetti, E. (1923). Diptera. Pipunculidae, Syrphidae, Conopidae, Oestridae.. Fauna of British India including Ceylon and Burma. 3, 424. London: Taylor Francis.
  • Brusca, Richard C., and Gary J. Brusca. 2002. Invertebrates, Second Edition. xx + 936
  • C. A. Carlson, Summer bottom fauna of the Mississippi River, above Dam 19, Keokuk, Iowa, Ecology 49(1):162-168, from p. 167 (1968).
  • D. K. Yeates, “Groundplans and exemplars: Paths to the tree of life”, Cladistics, vol. 11, pp. 343-357, 1995.
  • D. L. Pattie and N. A. M. Verbeek, Alpine birds of the Beartooth Mountains, Condor 68:167-176 (1966); Alpine mammals of the Beartooth Mountains, Northwest Sci. 41(3):110-117 (1967).
  • DE BUCK, N. 1990. Bloembezoek en bestuivingsecologie van Zweefvliegen (Diptera, Syrphidae) in het bijzonder voor Belgie. - Studiendocumenten Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences. 60: 1-167, Brussels.
  • DE BUCK, N. 1993. Bloembezoek en bestuivingsecologie van zweefvliegen (Diptera, Syrphidae) in het bijzonder voor Belgie. Appendix to working document '60' of the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences. – unpublished, 56. pp.
  • Diptera
  • EVENHUIS, N. L., T. PAPE, A.C. PONTAND, F.C. THOMPSON (Eds.). 2008. Biosystematic Database of World Diptera, Version 10., accessed on 20 January 2008.
  • H. W. Koepcke and M. Koepcke, Sobre el proceso de transformacion de la materia organica en las playas arenosas marinas del Peru. Publ. Univ. Nac. Mayer San Marcos, Zoologie Serie A, No. 8, from p. 24 (1952).
  • Hall SJ, Raffaelli D (1991) Food-web patterns: lessons from a species-rich web. J Anim Ecol 60:823–842
  • Huxham M, Beany S, Raffaelli D (1996) Do parasites reduce the chances of triangulation in a real food web? Oikos 76:284–300
  • I. Brake, “The Carnidae from 'De Kaaistoep', The Netherlands”, 2011. [Online]. Available:
  • J. Brown, Ecological investigations of the Tundra biome in the Prudhoe Bay Region, Alaska, Special Report, no. 2, Biol. Pap. Univ. Alaska (1975), from p. xiv.
  • J. F. McAlpine, “Morphology and terminology – adults”, in Manual of Nearctic Diptera, vol. 1, J. F. McAlpine, B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth, and D. M. Wood Ottawa: Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, 1981, pp. 9-63.
  • K. G. V. Smith and R. G. Davies, “Gland-like abdominal structures of possible epigamic function in the Diptera”, Nature, vol. 207, pp. 321-322, 1965.
  • K. Paviour-Smith, The biotic community of a salt meadow in New Zealand, Trans. R. Soc. N.Z. 83(3):525-554, from p. 542 (1956).
  • K. Schoenly and W. Reid, 1983. Community structure of carrion arthropods in the Chihuahuan Desert. J. Arid Environ. 6:253-263, from pp. 256-58 & unpub. material.
  • KLEIN, A.-M., VAISSIÈRE, B.E., CANE, J.H., STEFFAN-DEWENTER, I., CUNNINGHAM, S.A., KREMEN, C. & T. TSCHARNTKE (2007): Importance of pollinators in changing landscapes for world crops. - Proc. R. Soc. B (2007) 274, 303–313, Published online 27 October 2006.
  • KÜHN, J., A. HAMM, M. SCHINDLER, D.WITTMANN (2006): Ressourcenaufteilung zwischen der oligolektischen Blattschneiderbiene Megachile lapponica L. (Hym., Apiformes) und anderen Blütenbesuchern am schmablättrigen Weidenröschen (Epilobium angustifolium, Onagrarceae). Mitt. Dtsch. Ges. Allg. Angew. Ent., 15: 389-391.
  • L. D. Harris and G. B. Bowman, Vertebrate predator subsystem. In: Grasslands, Systems Analysis and Man, A. I. Breymeyer and G. M. Van Dyne, Eds. (International Biological Programme Series, no. 19, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, England, 1980), pp. 591-
  • L. D. Harris and L. Paur, A quantitative food web analysis of a shortgrass community, Technical Report No. 154, Grassland Biome. U.S. International Biological Program (1972), from p. 17.
  • LARSON, B. M. H., P. G. KEVAN AND D. W. INOUYE. 2001. Flies and flowers: The taxonomic diversity of anthophiles and pollinators. Canadian Entomologist 133(4): 439-465.
  • LUZAR, N. AND G. GOTTSBERGER 2001. Flower Heliotropism and Floral Heating of Five Alpine Plant Species and the Effect on Flower Visiting in Ranunculus montanus in the Austrian Alps. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, Vol. 33, No. 1 (Feb., 2001), pp. 93-99
  • M. J. Burgis, I. G. Dunn, G. G. Ganf, L. M. McGowan and A. B. Viner, Lake George, Uganda: Studies on a tropical freshwater ecosystem. In: Productivity Problems of Freshwaters, Z. Kajak and A. Hillbricht-Ilkowska, Eds. (Polish Scientific, Warsaw, 1972), p
  • M. Tsuda, Interim results of the Yoshino River productivity survey, especially on benthic animals. In: Productivity Problems of Freshwaters, Z. Kajak and A. Hillbricht-Ilkowska, Eds. (Polish Scientific, Warsaw, 1972), pp. 827-841, from p. 839.
  • North American Dipteran Pollinators: Assessing Their Value and Conservation Status, by Carol Ann Kearns (2001). (C) The Resilience Alliance. Conservation Ecology 5(1): 5
  • O. Dumčius and S. Pakalniškis, “New for Lithuania Diptera species found in 1993-2004”, New and Rare for Lithuania Insect Species Records and Descriptions, vol. 16, pp. 53-61, 2004.
  • P. A. Ler, “Key to the insects of Russian Far East. Vol. VI. Diptera and Siphonaptera. Pt 3”, in Key to the insects of Russian Far East. Vol. VI. Diptera and Siphonaptera. Pt 3., P. A. Ler 2004, pp. 1-657.
  • P. G. Howes, The Giant Cactus Forest and Its World: A Brief Biology of the Giant Cactus Forest of Our American Southwest (Duell, Sloan, and Pearce, New York; Little, Brown, Boston; 1954), from pp. 222-239, from p. 227.
  • R. D. Bird, Biotic communities of the Aspen Parkland of central Canada, Ecology, 11:356-442, from p. 383 (1930).
  • R. M. Badcock, 1949. Studies in stream life in tributaries of the Welsh Dee. J. Anim. Ecol. 18:193-208, from pp. 202-206 and Price, P. W., 1984, Insect Ecology, 2nd ed., New York: John Wiley, p. 23
  • SSYMANK, A. (1991): Rüssel- und Körperlängen von Schwebfliegen (Diptera, Syrphidae) unter Berücksichtigung der Verwendung von Alkoholmaterial. – Mitt. Schweizer. Entom. Gesellschaft 64: 67 – 80.
  • SSYMANK, A. 2001. Vegetation und blütenbesuchende Insekten in der Kulturlandschaft [Vegetation and flower-visiting insects in cultivated landscapes] - Schriftenreihe Landschaftspflege und Naturschutz 64, 513 pp., Bonn-Bad Godesberg.
  • SSYMANK, A., KEARNS, C.A., PAPE, TH. & F.C. Thomson: Pollinating Flies (Diptera): A major contribution to plant diversity and agricultural production. - Tropical Conservancy 9 (1 & 2): 86-89.
  • V. S. Summerhayes and C. S. Elton, Contributions to the ecology of Spitsbergen and Bear Island, J. Ecol. 11:214-286, from p. 232 (1923).
  • V. S. Summerhayes and C. S. Elton, Further contributions to the ecology of Spitzbergen, J. Ecol. 16:193-268, from p. 211 (1928).
  • V. S. Summerhayes and C. S. Elton, Further contributions to the ecology of Spitzbergen, J. Ecol. 16:193-268, from p. 217 (1928).
  • W. E. Ricker, 1934. An ecological classification of certain Ontario streams. Univ. Toronto Studies, Biol. Serv. 37, Publ. Ontario Fish. Res. Lab. 49:7-114, from pp. 78, 89.
  • Waide RB, Reagan WB (eds) (1996) The food web of a tropical rainforest. University of Chicago Press, Chicago
  • Wiegmann, Brian M. and David K. Yeates. 2007. Diptera. True Flies. Version 29 November 2007 (under construction). in The Tree of Life Web Project,


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